Rangkaian Kontrol Kecepatan Wiper Mobil

For some car wiper speed sometimes just made some speed so that less appropriate when we want a different speed, but for those of you who want a digital wiper speed controller you can also use this circuit to replace your old system.

rangkaian kontrol kecepatan wiper mobilSkema rangkaian kontrol kecepatan wiper mobil

This circuit comprises 2 timer NE555 ICs, one CD4017 decade counter, one TIP32 driver transistor, a 2N3055/ TIP3055 power transistor and A Few other discrete components. Timer IC1 is configured as a mono-stable multivibrator produces a pulse Pls Which one presses switch S1 momentarily. This pulse acts as a clock pulse for the decade counter (IC2) Which advances by one count on Each successive clock pulse or the push of switch S1. Ten presets (VR1 through VR10), for Different sets of values by trial and error, Are Used At The ten outputs of IC2. But since only one output of IC2 is high at a time, only one preset (selected at the output) effectively comes in series with resistors R4 and R5 timing connected in the circuit of timer IC3 Which functions in astable mode. As presets VR1 through VR10 are set for Different values, Different time periods (or frequencies) for astable multivibrator IC3 Can be selected. The output of IC3 is applied to the pnp driver transistor TIP32 for driving the final power transistor 2N3055 Which in turn drives the wiper motor at the selected sweep speed. The power supply for the wiper motor as well as the circuit is tapped from the vehicle s battery Itself. The duration of the monostable multivibrator IC1 is set for a period of nearly one second.

Source : www.electronic-circuits-diagrams.com

Solar Charger Circuit

Here is an Energy saving battery charger. It harvests solar energy to replenish 12 volt Inverter battery. It has auto cut off facility to stop charging when the battery attains full charge. The charger uses a 24 volt solar panel as input.

The circuit uses a variable voltage regulator IC LM 317 to set the output voltage steady around 16 volts. Variable resistor VR controls the output
voltage. When the solar panel generates current, D1 forward biases and Regulator IC gets input current. Its output voltage depends on the setting of VR and the output current is controlled by R1.This current passes through D2 and R3. When the output voltage is above (as set by VR) 16volts, Zener diode ZD2 conducts and gives stable 15 volts for charging. Charging current depends on R1 and R3. Around 250 to 300 milli ampere current will be available for charging. Green LED indicates charging status. When the battery attains full voltage around 13 volts, Zener diode ZD1 conducts and T1 forward biases. This drains the output current from the regulator IC through T1 and charging process stops. When the battery voltage reduces below 12 volts, ZD1 turns off and battery charging starts again.

Connect the circuit to the solar panel and measure the input voltage. Make sure that it is above 18 volts. Connect the circuit to the battery with correct polarity and adjust VR till LED lights. This indicates the conduction of ZD2 and output voltage. Use heat sinks for LM317 and TIP 122 to dissipate heat.
Note : The same circuit can be modified for charging different types of batteries. The only modification required is the change of ZD1 and ZD2. Select ZD2 value for the required output voltage and ZD1 for cut off voltage level. For example for 6 volt battery, ZD1 should be 6.1 volts and ZD2 6.8 volt. For Mobile battery, ZD1 should be 4.7 volts and ZD2 5.1 volts. All the other components remain same.

When it comes to your surround sound or home theater system, the quality of your speakers can really make or break the overall experience. Good quality speakers are one of, if not, the most important components when it comes to your home theater and surround sound system. 

You need to take action from the very beginning in order to make sure that you are not getting substandard speakers for your entertainment system whether your surround sound system is going to be used for your television viewing, home theater, music enjoyment, or to enhance your gaming experience on your personal computer the quality of the speakers will have a huge impact on how much you enjoy your system.

The problem is that most people do not even know where to begin when it comes to selecting and purchasing speakers. There are a few guidelines you can follow when making your decisions about speakers that will help you make better buying decisions in order to get higher quality speakers (budget allowing of course, though I recommend putting off the purchase until you can save up enough rather than purchasing inferior quality because it is within your price range).

There are many different types of speaker systems. Speakers that have received THX certification are generally your top of the line speakers. They will have very little distortion and a nice clear sound. If you can get your hands on a set of these and they fit within your budget constraints I highly recommend going with speakers that are THX certified. The sound, however should be the ultimate deciding factor when selecting speakers and quite frankly you will have to hear the sound for yourself in order to decide which sound you prefer.

Speakers, like anything are always a matter of preference. You can hear many different speakers and some people find that they all sound alike while others feel that the amount of distortion in some is simply unbearable and still others simply blame poor quality music on the sounds they hear in the speakers. The fact is that there are different determinations for quality and everyone has their own preferences and things that are important to them when listening to music and things that they feel can be sacrificed. I happen to be a bit of a sound snob so sacrifice isn't a word I like to hear when it comes to sound quality.

There are some things you can do in order to insure that you are getting a good quality set of speakers for your surround sound system. First, you should listen and make sure that the high sounds do not seem distorted or as though they were being made inside a tin can. You should also check that the midrange sounds are clear and resonant. You should also make sure that the speakers are not trying to do the job of the subwoofer, it is there for a reason and has a job-other speakers in the set shouldn't be trying to do it (if they are, it typically indicates problems with the subwoofer). Blend is important in a set of speakers. You do not want one speaker overpowering the others. If the music sounds too shrill or the middle range notes are overpowering, this is probably not the system for your needs.

It is recommended that you try the sound systems you are considering with different types of music and mediums (particularly if you will be using your surround sound system for a home theater or gaming system in addition to music). I always recommend the first 10 minutes of the movie Top Gun to check out sound when it comes to home theaters. You should also bring a copy of your favorite CD (as that is what you will probably listen to most on your system) and perhaps a few other CDs that show a variety. Listen to how different sounds are made on the system and choose according to the best overall system in order to have the most adaptability within your surround sound system.

Touch volume control circuit

Touch controls are not only used to switch devices on or off. They can also be used to control different functions. One good example is the TV remote control. If it is very important to keep the activated functions for a long period of time, it is always better to use a digital memory system. However, if small drifts in the control status is acceptable, a simple analog design can be used to memorize the status.

The touch volume controller is one such analog memory touch control switch. The main function centers mostly on the IC1. It is an opamp configured as an integrator with a high impedance input. If sensor 1 is touched, the capacitor C2 charges through the skin resistance and voltage at the output of IC1 decreases linearly until it reaches zero volt. Touching the other sensor (sensor 2) will produce the opposite result: the voltage at the pin 6 of IC1 will increase linearly until it reaches the power supply level. The special function of this touch volume control circuit is that after moving your finger away from the sensor(s), the output voltage of IC1 stays at that level.
This voltage value is memorized by C2. This analog memory however has a problem in long time periods: The voltage value drifts away by 2 % per hour due to the unavoidable current leak in the capacitor. To improve this situation, it is highly recommended to put this circuit in a moisture proof box.
This touch volume controller circuit has a wide application range. It can be used in devices where a potentiometer can be controlled through voltage levels. The touch sensors can alse be replaced with conventional push button switches. The capactiors C1 and C4 are very important in the circuit: they prevent the IC1 from oscillating. Simultaneously closing both switches will not damage the circuit.

Touch volume control PCB layout

Surround Sound Setup

If you are in the market for a brand new surround sound system I'm pretty sure you've been a little baffled by all the options, bells, whistles, gadgets, gizmos, and price tags on the market today. Trust me, you are not alone. One of the most baffling things to many potential surround sound system consumers is where on earth should you put all the speakers. I intend to answer that question and a few more over the course of the next few paragraphs and hope that you will read along.

The first thing you need to understand is that there are several different types of surround sound systems. The industry standard and most common is the 5.1 channel surround sound system. This set up calls for the use of five speakers plus one subwoofer in addition to the receiver. The five speakers are the front speakers which include a left, right, and center speaker and the left and right surround speakers that are located to the left and right from the rear. You should also have a subwoofer located behind you in order to create the 'bass notes' of sound. The next two types of surround sound systems include the 6.1 channel and 7.1 channel system. The primary differences in these are the addition of one additional speaker for each. 

You will be glad to know that most receivers will accommodate the 8 total speakers of a 7.1 channel surround sound system but you may want to check in order to be certain you can upgrade if you chose to buy a 5.1 channel system for the time being. The addition of speakers when you upgrade change the layout of the speakers in your home. The more speakers you have, the greater sound you will enjoy, however, the better the quality of your speakers, the better quality your sound will have. In other words don't go with lower quality speakers in the beginning in order to have more speakers, as you will be shooting the quality of sound you can experience in the foot. It is better to buy fewer speakers in the beginning and add to your system over time in order to receive better quality.

When it comes to the placement of the additional speakers if you upgrade to a 6.1 channel surround sound system you will move the speakers currently in the left and right rear to the left and right side and place the new speaker in the center back. If you then upgrade to the 7.1 channel surround sound system you will move the speaker that is in the center to the rear left and place the new speaker to the rear right. This allows you to be literally surrounded by the sound in order to maximize your listening experience.

Of course this is only a recommendation and it is entirely up to you what will work best within your home and according to your tastes and wants in a surround sound system. Not everyone hears music or sound the same and the experience for each will vary greatly from one person to the next. For this reasons it is also a good idea to be sure you have listened to the system in a store before deciding on one and bringing it home. This is a wise decision regardless. I also recommend taking more than one CD or DVD for the listening process in order to make sure the quality is consistent through different mediums.

While the setup of your system is very important to the sound experience it is quite difficult provided you follow the directions (you didn't forget to read those did you?). Whether this is your first home theater or surround sound system or one of many upgrades you've made along the way I'm sure you will agree that the sound is far superior to the two speaker systems of days not that long ago. 



If you are in the market for a surround sound system I'm sure you are trying to learn as much as possible about options before you reach the buying stage. One thing to keep in mind is that there are many options and most of them will come down to a matter of taste when all is said and done. There is no right or wrong component or process when it comes to buying a surround sound system only what does and doesn't work for you and the space you have available.

You will find throughout the process that there are many parts, pieces, and components that you may purchase for your surround sound system and even more prices for those individual items. Ultimately the decision comes down to how much of a sound snob you are. Seriously. I must admit that my personal preference is for the most possible sound saturation and the most realistic possible sound as possible. For this reason I am more interested in buying the components as individuals rather than a simple AV receiver. This does not mean that an AV receiver wouldn't be perfectly adequate (especially in relation to the size of my rather small media room) but that I prefer the added control over the sound that individual components provides.

Unfortunately, I cannot tell you which will work best for your situation as your tastes and requirements will also play heavily on which decision is best for you as will your budget. Some people do not place nearly as much emphasis on sound as I do and most people have budget constraints that make individual components seem like a bit of overkill. However, if you spend, as much time as I do submersing yourself in experiences that require sound, then you will find that the investment in these components may be well worth every penny. You will pay a few though and should understand that now.

If you want to build a fabulous surround sound system you will need to start with the preamp or processor. This will be the heart of your sound system and works as a surround processor, AM/FM radio, amplifier, and preamp in one. This piece of equipment receives the signals and then sends them on their merry way. Amazingly enough the information always seems to find its way where it should go-assuming of course that everything is plugged into its proper channel.

The tuner allows you to receive and process AM/FM radio signals, XM or Satellite Radio, and some High Definition signals as well. The amplifier adds power to the sound or as its name implies, amplifies it. This allows the sound to 'reach' across the room so that everyone in the room is touched by it.  

These components each achieve functions individually that a good quality AV receiver can accomplish. The difference is always in degrees and depth. The AV receiver allows some of the functionality of each but doesn't quite match the control and nuances that can be achieved with any one of the pieces individually. The average consumer doesn't need that sizeable of an investment in equipment, money, time, or space in order to achieve excellent theater quality sound in their home theater system and that is the important thing to remember. 

If you are hoping to imitate a 'theater' experience in an average size room, chances are you will never need anything more than a decent AV receiver and an excellent set of speakers. The more speakers you have in your surround sound system, the better the quality of the sound will be. However, better quality speakers will trump marginal quality equipment any day while marginal quality speakers can still ruin the sound of even the best quality AV equipment. The best advice I can give you when purchasing equipment for your surround sound system is to make sure you put your money in your speakers and sort the rest out afterwards.



No one had a clue during the early days of television the incredible impact that this device would have over people and their daily lives nearly a century later. I can hardly believe the difference between the television offerings of my childhood and the vast number of quality shows, channels, and information that is available by simply turning on the television.

In addition to that, the quality of sound that can be achieved through the simple act of adding a receiver and surround sound speakers to your television is day and night when comparing before and after.

I do not think for one second anyone could have possibly anticipated the global impact that televisions have introduced. Add to that the entertainment value and the fact that we are now using our televisions for much more than simply watching and you have opened up a whole new world of entertainment. Surround sound not only works wonders with movies and (some) television shows but is also an excellent enhancement for video games and even music. 

Televisions are also being used for more purposes now than ever before. With each generation of video game system there are new features added that require more from the televisions and speaker systems we spend so much of our time enjoying. From the days when people first gained the ability to check their email on their television sets, the technology seed has been planted for greater things to come. Each year new televisions and new surround sound and home theater systems hit the market with amazing success among consumers. We all want more sound, better pictures, and more functionality from a piece of technology that is not yet a century old. It's amazing the progress that has been made already and the rapid rate at which this technology continues to evolve. 

Surround sound is only one example of the great possibilities that exist in the entertainment industry, it simply happens that this is one piece of the technology puzzle that enhances so many other of the things that we enjoy so much on a daily basis. From gaming to music to movies, all are enhanced by the technology and premium sound that a good surround sound system with high quality speakers can provide. When purchasing speakers for your surround sound system, be sure to make sure that they are THX certified in order to assure that you are getting top quality speakers for your surround sound system or home theater.

You will find as you sort through the various surround sound systems in the market today that there are many options available to you. I hope that you will take the time to find the one that you like best and keep an open mind when you bring it into your home. It is important to remember that you may find the system doesn't sound as good in your home as it did in the store (acoustics are going to be different). If this is the case with your system, make a note of the differences that you find troublesome, and return the kit to the store, then ask for recommendations on systems that might work better in your home. You should also include things like the size of the room, the types of walls and flooring you have (all of these things affect the acoustical quality of your room). Most importantly, make the most of the advances that technology has allowed and enjoy.



Just in case you've been reading around and researching the many terms and topics that concern surround sound and the many surround sound systems on the market today, I thought it might be a good idea to explain some of the terminology that is floating around.

First of all there are many initials names and numbers floating around when it comes to surround sound technology and equipment, it's no wonder that many of us mere mortal consumers are more than a little confused by it all. Hopefully the information you find below will prove helpful as you weave through the wired jungles of modern sound technology.

The first and probably most common thing you will see in these circles is Dolby Digital. While there are many complicated definitions of this term the one that will matter most to you, as a consumer is that right now it is the leading format on the market when it comes to processing the digital data that your system will need to process. There are better brands such as DTS when it comes to musical sound for this function but the vast majority of television broadcasts and DVDs are optimized for Dolby.

Speaking of DTS, at the moment they are Dolby's primary competition. While most items you find on the market such as DVDs are viewable in both DTS and Dolby you need to make sure that they system you purchase whether Dolby or DTS can read both formats for those times when your favorite flick just might not be enhanced for both.

Now perhaps the most confusing of terms when it comes to surround sound systems would be 5.1. It looks so innocent just sitting there but most people are ready to pull out their hair when they realize that it really stands for a system that includes 6 speakers rather than five. The ".1" in the name refers to the frequency of the subwoofer (or Low Frequency Effects-LFE), which is .1. Despite the existence of 'better' systems on the market today, most movies are optimized for this particular set up so this will be of the most value to you with the current products on the market rather than spending more for systems that the DVD makes haven't yet caught up with.

DTS ES refers to a format commonly referred to as 6.1. In this format there is one additional speaker moved to the center rear of the configuration and the two-rear left and right speakers are moved forward. And THX EX 7.1 is what happens when you add yet another speaker. There aren't too many films at the moment that use this particular format some notable exceptions would be the Star Wars movies. This means that movies haven't really caught up to the technology of either of these systems but they are on the market and some people simply must have them. I recommend going with a superior 5.1 channel surround sound system for the time being and adding speakers when there are more reasons to do so.

This list is by no means exhaustive but will give you a basic overview of the information that is relevant to you as you look into the various surround sound systems on the market today. You shouldn't have to weed through volumes of confusing terminology in order to find out that the system you are interested in actually has 6 speakers rather than 5. My hope is that you can go in armed with basic knowledge that will help you make an informed buying decision.



If you are one of the many people around the world who loves the sound quality of watching movies in theaters but hates the hassles (crying babies, people talking, cell phones ringing, etc) of actually going then I hope you are seriously contemplating the value that a home theater or surround sound system could bring to your movie enjoyment. 

In fact, a good surround sound system cannot only improve your overall enjoyment of blockbuster hits but also your favorite music and video games as well. Surround sound is far more than a tool for watching movies at home, it is an entirely new way to look at and listen to your television in general. 

You do not have to begin your home theater or surround sound experience with a top of the line piece of equipment. It is quite possible to start small with a surround sound system and build a better system as you go. In fact, I seriously recommend that people invest heavily in speakers from the beginning and sacrifice the number of speakers in favor of better quality speakers. In addition to this there are many box kits out there that are designed for almost any budget on the market. You can find box kits for everything from basic surround sound systems to home theater in a box. If you are seriously considering the enjoyment this can bring into your home there is no time like the present to start checking out your options.

I never recommend simply walking into the store and purchasing the first kit you find though you are certainly welcome to do just that. I feel that you might walk away from the experience a little jaded however and highly suggest that you go to a local retail center that has sound rooms set up in order to listen to the many options that are currently on the market and compare the sound and the quality of the sound within those items in your price range. I suggest that you start on the low side and work your way up rather than starting at the high end and working your way down. 

When you find the quality of sound you are most comfortable with, this is the system I recommend you go home and research. Compare prices online to see if you can find any major values and bargains. The Internet is usually full of good deals for consumers that are willing to sort through many companies that market online. While the Internet is the land of opportunity for some, I also recommend that you take the lowest price you find online to your local retail store and see if they can match it or throw in a few perks to sweeten the deal. You could find some interesting deals by doing this and it costs nothing to try and could save you money in the long run.

The point is to get the best system your money can buy (without sending you to the 'poor house' in the process). Once you have decided on the system you want all bets are off when it comes to finding the best price. We live in a consumer driven marketplace and as a consumer you do have control over where your money is spent and whether or not you are willing to pay the price of spending your money elsewhere. 

You know the quality you expect, as you've listened and compared in the stores, and you know the price that you are willing to pay for that quality. Most consumers are learning this fact and willing to make concessions in order to compete with those companies that operate online. See what your local retailers can offer you and if they can't match what you've found online you should be willing to go with the online service. This is a great way for you as a consumer to know what you are getting and feel as though you've gotten a good deal in the process. More importantly you get to bring the theatrical experience you love so much into your very own living room. Now the only kids crying over your movie will be your own.



A clap switch circuit is a classic beginner’s project. Equipment can be switched on and off by just clapping your hands. Add a tiny microcontroller and you can easily build-in some more useful features.
The microcontroller in this circuit makes it a simple job to add some useful features that are not seen on other clap switch designs:

– Changeover relay contacts enable the unit to be wired in conjunction with a manual changeover switch so
that manual override of the switched equipment is always possible.
– The unit is only responsive to a specific sequence of sounds i.e., two claps within a defined time window.
– A safety feature masks the input for a given time window if misuse (repeated commands) is detected (useful if children have discovered how it works).
The safety feature and two-clap sequence detector can be built using TTL or CMOS flip-flops but by using a single microcontroller the circuit can be greatly simplified. A mains power supply is included so no additional power source is required.
The Microchip flash PIC12F629 microcontroller is a neat device; the small 8-pin package contains a complete microcontroller including clock generator, reset circuitry, Flash ROM, RAM and EEPROM. Two of the eight pins are used for the supply connections while the remaining six are general-purpose I/O pins. A few of these pins have special function like the comparator inputs. The sound sensitivity of the circuit can be adjusted by programming the comparator threshold level in software.

R1,R6,R7 = 4kΩ7
R2 = 150kΩ
R3 = 22kΩ
R4 = 10kΩ
R5 = 150Ω
P1 = 100kΩ preset H
C1 = 220μF 25V radial
C2 = 100nF
C3 = 1μF 16V
B1 = B80C1500 (round case, 80V piv, 1.5A)
D1,D2 = 1N4148
D3 = bicolour LED (red/green)
IC1 = 78L05
IC2 = PIC12F629CP, programmed
T1,T2,T3 = BC238 or BC547
JP1 = 2-way pinheader with jumper
K1 = 2-way PCB terminal block, lead pitch 7.5mm
K2 = 3- way PCB terminal block, lead pitch 7.5mm
MIC1 = 2-terminal electret microphone capsule
Re1 = bistable relay, 2 x changeover (e.g., Schrack RT314F12)
Tr1 = mains transformer 1 x 6V, min. 2VA, short-circuit proof (e.g., Marschner VN30.15/10522 or Era 030-7340.0T; Conrad Electronics # 506141)

After a full day of work and mind bubbling activities in the workplace, the last entry in a young professional’s diary is to go to a movie theater to relax. The sight and sound of a movie theater relaxes and easily entertains even the most stressed moviegoer. The problem with this however is the fact that even before you reach the movie theater, traffic jam may be a hindrance to your enjoyment. Traffic jam usually makes you more stressed than you currently are. It may be best if you can bring home the relaxation and entertainment. Having to sit and relax with your spouse in your own home theater maybe best to eradicate the tiredness that you feel.

This is why the concept of home theater is born. Because of the growing popularity of home theater systems, you may easily find home theater furniture like home theater seating system and home theater equipments that will suit your requirements. This modern concept is slowly receiving a grand welcome from people because in the end, having home theater set up in your home may prove to be economical. Home theater system including home theater seating that completes the set up is not only available for the rich and the famous.

Slowly, the knowledge of the basic home theater design such as the three major components and home theater seating options is getting to be a concept known to the middle class citizenry. Home theater system with the addition of home theater seating options may be a neat gift of the older people because they can enjoy watching movies even without having to leave the house. Home theater seating options include lumbar back support and motorized reclining mechanism, especially designed for people who need to give their back a rest. 

It may be worthy to mention what are the three basic components of a home theater system. You may not need to add home theater seating if the room is quite small, only the three basic components may be able to give you that home theater entertainment you long for. Do not mind home theater seating if you do not have big budget for the home theater system, a recliner may do the part especially if your living room has limited space. The three basic components of a home theater system are television set which should not be smaller than 27 inches; three speakers placed on the right, the left and on the center for a surround sound; and finally, the DVD player, you may need to find one with progressive scan because this will give you sharp images and flicker-free pictures. If you have all these basic home theater components, even without home theater seating, you may be able to experience the almost theatrical experience.

Relax and enjoy the entertainment your home theater system may provide. Sit beside your family in your home theater seating designed to your whole family, the kids will surely love to see a movie with you on your very own home theater system. You may not need home theater seating to complete the set up if the room is quite small. However, if you have a bigger room for your home theater system, including the home theater seating in the set up may be able to complete the best home theater package. You may even add television cabinet to compliment the design and your home theater seating which may be made of the same wood as your television cabinet.

Additionally, because the basic three speakers’ requirement is only good for smaller rooms, if you have a bigger room, you may need to add more speakers. You can even put six speakers and a subwoofer to complete that surround sound you love in a movie theater. All these will complete the grand package of your home theater. You may need to consider high-end home theater seating to help you relax you tired body from working all day. Relax and enjoy life with your family, your home theater system may do a lot of good for you.

If you are contemplating on acquiring a home theater system because you want to enjoy watching movies but hate tiding traffic jams to go to a movie theater, you may find it useful to read home theater reviews. Home theater reviews will help you understand the benefit of owning a home theater. It will help you acquire the most suited home theater setup that will give you the best experience you long for. Being able to watch movies after movies with no limit may be an enjoyment you want after a long day of work. Thus, owning a home theater is best for your, find the benefits that people who own home theater systems enjoy in a home theater review.

Home theater reviews provide deeper understanding of home theater equipment and furniture. These reviews will help you avoid buying inferior products, because it will be able to provide the most useful information that you need. Additionally, these reviews will help you avoid buying extremely superior products that will overload your home theater setup. Reading home theater review is thus important to be able to get the best out of your home theater system.

In a home theater review, you may find the best location you may place your home theater and the best set up that will suit you best. The recommendations of home theater furniture by home theater experts may also be beneficial to complete the home theater package. Learning how big the room may be, and the component to complete the sight and surround sound requirement for your home theater is a good knowledge you may acquire form home theater reviews. Additionally, reviews will provide you with in-depth knowledge of the home theater equipments, the intrinsic benefits and the possible defects of certain home theater equipment may also be a learning you will get from home theater reviews. Reading these reviews will prove to be beneficial for people who want to own a home theater system. Even for those who already own a home theater system, these reviews may be able to provide additional information on how to enhance their home theater system.

The in-depth review of home theater furniture and the best place where you will find superior products will help you avoid buying inferior products that will annoy you in the end. Home theater reviews will also give you various options for the best arrangement of your home theater. The best place to find reasonably priced high-end products may also be a benefit home theater reviews may be able to provide.

Finally, these home theater reviews are reviews done by industry experts, thus you will be able to get the best tips and recommendations that will help you decide if home theater system is going to be beneficial for you and if it will answer your need to be entertained. It may also help you decide on the brand and quality of your home theater equipments and furniture. Even the recommendation of a well-experienced home theater designer is available from the lines of a home theater review.

When you finally decide to acquire home theater system, this will benefit you and your family. You will then be able to watch movies and other entertaining functions of your very own home theater, and the best part is, you enjoy all these with your family beside you.

Line Follower Robot with AVR ATMega8535

Line Follower Robot with AVR ATMega8535 - Make the robot line follower is exciting, especially for those who like to friends experimented with AVR microcontroller ATMega. "Line Follower Robot" is a robot designed to follow the trail (can be a line putus2 line or even a point to point). Creating a Line Follower Robot uses an AVR microcontroller ATMega 8535 is very possible and very reliable. Due to the design of a Line Follower Robot should we think that the trail will be followed step by step Line Follower Robot will be made to track or path in Line Follower Robot is passed. And of the Line Follower Robot needs tersbut feature2 owned by AVR microcontroller ATMega 8535 is sufficient and meets the needs of the Line Follower Robot. Line Follower Robot in the article with AVR ATMega8535 I made a simple graffiti to be possessed by a Line Follower Robot.

Line Follower Robot Block Diagram of the AVR ATMega8535

Block Diagram of Line Follower Robot with AVR ATMega 8535
Block Diagram of Line Follower Robot with AVR ATMega 8535

Function Block Diagram of Line Follower Robot with AVR ATMega 8535 :
  1. Line Follower Robot Sensor on can use a photo diode or photo transistor, this section serves to detect the presence of trajectory track.
  2. Keypad, this part of the function buttons to start / stop Line Follower Robot and as voters Line Follower Robot configuration settings for the field will be going through.
  3. Display, a part which serves to show the option of setting and the setting (it is enough that needs to be in view) of this section or the viewer can use a 7 segment LCD.
  4. Motor Driver, this part of a series of H Bridge DC motor driver. This section controls the motor in langsun. This section is an AVR microcontroller interface anatara ATMega with DC motor. I like to use the IC motor driver L298 family.
  5. ATMega8535 AVR microcontrollers, this section is the part that determines where the robot will be taken based on the data from the sensor. This section is set langkah2 Line Follower Robot in the conquest of the track.
×××× Creating a Line Follower Robot  ××××

The article "Creating a Line Follower Robot with AVR [Censorship]" is a continuation of Line Follower Robot article with a new AVR ATMega8535 samapai phase Line Follower Robot block diagram. In the article "Creating a Line Follower Robot with AVR Part 1 [Sensor]" This is a review of the sensor used on Line Follower Robot, and the components used. Sensors, can be analogous to the 'eye' of a robot that serves to 'read' the black line of the track robot or vice versa. So that the robot is able to know when he will turn right, when he turned left and when he stopped. Sensors used are usually photo reflector, LDR (Light Dependent Resistor), Photo Diodes and Photo Transistor - mounted on the front two or more below the line follower robot.There also are using the camera as a sensor (or image sensor) to a higher-resolution readout line, making more accurate robot motion.
Line Follower Robot Sensor circuit with AVR ATMega

Robot Sensor circuit with AVR ATMega
Robot Sensor circuit with AVR ATMega  Circuit

The working principle of the sensor is simple, when the transmitter (infrared) emitting light onto a white field, the light will be reflected back to the receiver by the white areas and vice versa. This gives the change in the voltage level at the receiver output, but it usually changes the voltage can not be accepted as a TTL logic level. To be able to read by the microcontroller, the sensor voltage should be adjusted to TTL voltage level that is 0-1 volts for logic 0 and 3-5 volts for logic 1. This can be done by installing the operational amplifier is used as a comparator as shown in the picture above.
Op Amp is used as a comparator LM324 IC, because IC is able to work at VCC 5 volt range and there are 4 in 1 Op Amp IC corresponding to the number of sensors are used. The sensitivity of this sensor can be set through R9 which controls the comparator reference point.
Maximizing Sensor Line Follower Robot

Line follower robot sensors can be made with a combination between LED and photo diode. Line follower robot sensor configuration is good to be able to read the track with a hard and fast. To make the robot sensor is firm and fast can not merely rely on the ability of photo diodes and LED configurations only. As an alternative to maximize the performance of line follower robot sensors can be added to the voltage comparator with Op-Amp. Sensor circuit line follower robot equipped with a voltage comparator that is ready to be connected to a microcontroller or PIC can use the following series of robot sensor.
Line Follower Robot Sensor circuit with voltage comparator

voltage comparator
Voltage comparator Circuit

Function of the voltage comparator circuit line follower robot sensor above is:

  1. Reinforce the logic level sensor output
  2. Amplifies the sensor output signal
  3. Control and determine the reference point sensor
  4. Reinforce the logic level sensor output is intended to avoid the floating logic conditions, with the goal of getting the process of transition logic (high) to a logic low (low) or vice versa in a fast sensors. So as to enhance the response to the sensor readings track work.

Sensor output voltage levels should be read as well by the TTL logic processor. If the robot sensors rely on photo diodes and LED configurations, then during the reading process is fast track, then the resulting signal has a logic low loevel differences and can not be read as a TTL logic. Therefore, robot sensor voltage levels are still weak need to be corroborated by a voltage comparator, so the TTL logic level differences firm with a strong signal.

The purpose of controlling and determining the sensor reference point is, we can determine the position of the robot sensor readings can be considered as a logic high or logic low.  Choosing process reference value line follower robot sensor readings can be done by adjusting VR1 10kOhm the series "Line Follower Robot Sensor Voltage Comparator With" above.

Line Follower Robot Sensor Concept - Sensor line detector is used in line follower robot is usually based on the principle of light reflectionto distinguish the line with the background color. In the dark color of the light absorption is greater than that of white light reflected to the sensor becomes smaller.
Position sensor to track the trajectory and the example circuit.

Line Follower Robot Sensor Concept
Line Follower Robot Sensor Concept
Light used for the introduction of the line is usually visible light and infra-red. Sensors for visible light are commonly used are LDR (Light Depending Resistance), while for the infrared light is atransistor and photo diode (photodiode). Sensors placed at the bottom of the frame to hang the robot, so that its position can be located just above the track to be read.

Know the Line Follower Robot

Line Follower Robot Glance - Line Follower Robot- a kind of robot which included into the category robotmobile are designed to work in an autonomous and have the ability to detect and move to follow (follows) the existing line on the surface. Control system used is designed to feel that there are pathways of movement and maneuver in order to remain able to follow that line. Robots of this type quite a lot of interest for those who are just learning to robot technology. Even competitions Line Follower Robot, often held regularly at various universities .In industry, robots of this type is often used to to move goods from one place to another. By modifying slightly the sensor line follower robot can then be developed into a Wall Follower Robot, a robot that can move around the wall.

Line Follower Robot

Sensor On Line Follower Robot

Sensors, can be analogous to the 'eye' of a robot that serves to 'read' the black line of the track robot. So that the robot is able to know when he will turn right, when he turned left and when he stopped. The sensor used is a light sensor mounted below the front of the robot, so as to find a bright line of a dark background or vice versa. Sensors used are usually photo reflector, R LD (Light Dependent Resistor), Photo Diodes and Photo Transistor - mounted on the front two or more under robotline follower. There also are using the camera as a sensor (or image sensor) to a higher-resolution readout line, making more accurate robot motion.
Sensor On Line Follower Robot

The working principle of the sensor is simple, when the transmitter (infrared) emitting light onto a white field, the light will be reflected almost entirely by the white areas. In contrast, Itter m ans when emit light to dark or black areas, then the light will be absorbed by the dark areas, so that incoming light kereceiver low. To be able to read by the microcontroller, the sensor voltage should be adjusted to TTL voltage level that is 0-1 volts for logic 0 and 3-5 volts for logic 1. This can be done by installing the operational amplifier is used as a comparator.

Driver On Line Follower Robot

Motor Drive On Line Follower Robot - To move the Line Follower 2 options can be used, namely motor or DC motor servo motor. If you want to use a DC motor, it must use a DC motor is mounted gear system (geared motors DC).Kind of like it is still difficult to find in the market, so the choice often falls to the servo motor.Another advantage of the servo motor is a servo motor can be controlled directly from the microcontroller PIC16F84 with no extra-Driver IC again.

Motor Drive On Line Follower Robot
Motor Drive On Line Follower Robot
Wheel Drive On Line Follower Robot - Wheels are used in line follower may vary - kinds, ranging from the brand, type, dimensions, and so forth. Line Follower Robot are generally categorized based on the number of wheels it has.Starting from the robot with two wheels, three wheels or four wheels. But that is commonly used is a robot with three or four wheels.

Wheel Drive On Line Follower Robot
Wheel Drive On Line Follower Robot 

Placed behind a pair of wheels connected by two motors each - each have an independent pace.It is important that the robot can turn left and to right and set the desired rotation rounds. While the front wheels could use a caster wheel that serves as a buffer. Many brands of caster wheels that can be used, one of the most famous is from the manufacturer Tamiya. However, no cane akarpun so - if we want a cheaper and sometimes free, odor-preventing former rodadeodorant can used as a caster wheel.

In the Line Follower Robot Microcontroller Many types of microcontrollers that can be used in line follower robot, some examples include AT89C2051 (8051 Core), AT89C51 (8051 Core), ATmega8 (AVR Core), ATmega16 (AVR Core) and many more.

In the microcontroller, the program will be included so that the robot can adjust the rotation speed of each motor and able to perform the desired movement. Because the line follower robot speed is high enough, then some of the control algorithm needs to be applied to a robot capable of running smoothly. Control that can be a continuous control, PID, fuzzy logic, or the other.

Speed setting is important, especially when faced with change of trajectory, from a straight trajectory to bend or otherwise of the bend to the straight path. Just as when the robot moves fast and then find a corner, then the robot would be bounced. That requires a series of dynamic motor speed control depending on the type of trajectory is traversed. If the robot goes straight, the speed of the robot cultivated at a maximum. If the condition of the bend, then the speed is reduced depends on the sharpness of the bend. In essence, the speed of the robot is made flexible according to the situation on the ground. On the robot, the speed reduction can be done using the PWM (Pulse widht Modulation) controller, namely the reduction of speed by reducing the current to the motor.

NiCad Battery Charger Circuit

This array charger ambit is advised for recharging NiCad batteries based on an AC-powered accepted antecedent method. It can crank out as abundant as 1 amp and can be adapted to go alike college by allotment altered accessories for Q1. Since this ambit uses AC band voltages and currents, amuse exercise acute attention during assembly, turn-on,
and test. NiCAD batteries accept a accommodation blueprint alleged milliamp-hours. This amount alleged “C” is a admeasurement of how abundant absolute accepted they can accommodate in one hour. Milliamp-hours is addition way to accurate the activity independent in the battery. To recharge a NiCAD array conservatively, it is accepted convenance to pump a accepted of 0.1 C into the anode or absolute terminal for about 12 hours. Therefore, if you had a D-size NiCAD with a accommodation of 4000mAh, you would appetite to allegation it at 400mA for about 12 hours. Addition advantage of this charging address is that it is affable on batteries and doesn’t account them to lose accommodation as bound as the fast allegation techniques.
The achievement accepted of this array charger ambit is controlled by the accretion of the bandgap advertence diode and the base-emitter alliance of the PNP transistor. The PNP transistor provides abrogating acknowledgment to the aboideau of the MOSFET. As acclaimed in the schematic, the batteries actuality answerable can accept a absolute of 12V which is agnate to about 8 NiCAD’s in series. The achievement accepted is bent by the amount of R1 which is bent by:
The ability amusement of R1 will equal:
Be abiding to accommodate pleanty of heatsink for Q1 and accept an appropriately sized resistor for R1. The afterward table summarizes some of the resistor accepted combinations that are possible:
Iout Resistor Amount Resistor Power
100mA 33 ohms 1 watt
500mA 6.2 ohms 2 watt
1Amp 3.3 ohms 5 watt

Regulator 5A model Matahari

Car Stereo Speaker

Car Stereo Speaker: Let Your Car Stereo Speak For Itself - Even if you’re not a car audio connoisseur, it’s easy to be impressed with a car stereo speaker while looking around in an expo or convention. They’re the first thing you’ll probably notice, they come in different colors, shapes and sizes. Those big throbbing concaves blaring incredibly low bass lines or cool little tweeters whistling out seething treble sounds.

Car Stereo Speaker with ladies

Car stereo speakers are interesting and very tempting to buy, especially the big loud ones. But big is not always the best. Each speaker has its own unique quality, intended use and price range. Some may also be better than others at certain things so it pays to investigate your type of car stereo amplifier or head unit before you finally decide on a car stereo speaker for your system. Here are some features to consider: 

Car stereo speakers are not all the same size and wattage, and this can cause a problem once you try to hook it up in your car. Know the specs of your system. Sort this out ahead of time, it will save you a lot of hassle. You will be happier with your new acquisition if you can get to see it in action as soon as possible.
Car Stereo Speaker

There are also a lot of car stereo amplifiers on the market, it pays to be aware of how the car stereo speaker you are considering compares to the others, and how compatible it is to your amplifier or the amplifier you’re planning to buy. Car stereo speakers and amplifiers go hand in hand. You’ll want the car stereo speakers you buy to be suitable for your automotive entertainment needs and not strain the system. 

Style can be an important factor when choosing your special car stereo speakers. You’ll want the one you choose to fit in perfectly with your other all sorts of stereo speakers. If you’re planning to install something different, you have to take into consideration the modifications your going to have to make in order to accommodate your new car stereo speakers. 

One of the biggest issues in buying a new type of car stereo speaker is suitability. How suitable your car stereo speakers are is probably the biggest issue. Don't forget the reason you’re buying the type of car stereo amplifier in the first place, and ensure that the all sorts of stereo speakers you are looking at will do the job you need no matter what other fancy features they may offer. 

Brand is an important consideration when you are shopping for a car stereo speaker. The fact is, one brand of type of car stereo amplifier may have a much better reputation than another, and for good reason. You be the judge. Do your research. Ask car audio enthusiasts. Read magazines and reviews. Do you want to take a chance on just any car stereo speakers, or go for the proven name brand? 

Lastly, price is important even if you think it's not. After all, would you want to pay more for your car stereo speakers only to find it cheaper the next day at a different store? Nobody likes that. When shopping for better car stereo speakers, it pays to check at least a couple of different stores, just to make sure you're getting your car stereo speakers at the best price.

Car Stereo Installation Guide - Want to save some money? Ever wonder if you could do a car stereo installation yourself? Yes, you can do it yourself! Go ahead, spend that money on your hardware! Don’t spend it on labor. Besides, doing a car stereo installation yourself can be a very rewarding experience, not to mention you can learn a lot from it too. Nothing beats the feeling of seeing your “creation” in action, running smoothly and perfectly.

Car Stereo Installation
But be very careful, you really won’t want to damage your expensive hardware. Well, most car audio hardware are no-brainers to install, you’d find that most of the time the parts have specially shaped sockets and slots etc. and would only fit where it’s supposed to be installed. Still, it’s best to proceed methodically.

In a car stereo installation, you have to determine what kind of rig you’re going to put into your vehicle. If you’re a beginner, it’s best you do a car stereo installation if it’s just a simple system. You may want to leave the complicated stuff to the professionals, like installing delicate equipment like LCD panels, motorized parts etc. especially if it requires the creation of custom panels and such. 

Head units are one of the easiest to do in a car stereo installation. Fortunately, most units follow the same size standards (DIN). In many cars, once the factory radio is removed the aftermarket radio will fit in the hole. In many other cars, a kit is needed if the factory hole is too big, or not deep enough. In some cases the dash has to be cut.  Any car stereo store should have kits required for installation. 

There are two types of mounting in a car stereo installation. ISO mounting is when the radio can be screwed to existing factory radio brackets, such as in most Japanese cars. Ring mounting is when an aftermarket radio comes with a metal ring that gets mounted to the factory radio hole or aftermarket kit via bendable tabs. In many cars, dash and trim rings have to be filed to enlarge the radio hole. Once the ring is installed, the radio slides in and is held by snaps. In most cases, special tools are required to remove the radio.

Speakers are very critical in a car stereo installation. No matter how expensive your speakers are, if they are not properly installed, the sound will not be up to par.

In a simple car stereo installation, you’ll probably be using speakers that fit into a factory location. Just make sure there are no gaps or holes. Sometimes building a wood or fiberglass baffle helps reduce holes and gives you much better sound. But always be careful when using power tools around speakers. Car stereo installation warranties usually don't cover holes in speakers.

For unconventional speaker locations, sometimes metal has to be cut. You might want to leave this to the professionals, tools like plasma cutters and pneumatics drills are required. But if you’re going to insist, a pair of metal snips (left and right cut) will do.

A car stereo installation has to put up with vibrations and other noise sources in its environment. Even though it is impossible to eliminate these completely, there are products that will greatly decrease the noise and rattling, particularly on non-luxury cars. Liners, sprays and adhesive strips and even carpeting applied onto the panels can make a world of difference.   

Sony Car Stereo

The Sony Corporation, based in Tokyo is a leading manufacturer of audio, video, communications, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. Their music, motion picture, television, computer entertainment, and online businesses also make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. 

So it is not surprising to learn that Sony car stereos are also well renowned in the automotive audio market. In 2005, Sony car stereos launched their latest carrier car audio product, the Sony car stereo Xplod series which has an amazing lineup of head units, speakers, amplifiers, subwoofers, changers and accessories. It is impressive both in performance and aesthetic value. 
Sony car stereo Xplod Series
Sony car stereo Xplod Series
A good head unit from the Sony car stereo Xplod Series is the CDX – M9900 CD Receiver/Changer Controller/MP3 Player which boasts these features:   

- 32,000-color TFT display
- Video Input for External Source Playback
- CD/CD-R/CD-RW/MP3 playback
- 4-Volt F/R/Sub Preouts w/HPF & LPF
- 52W x 4 High Power
- CEA-2006 Power Compliant
- CD/MD Control, CD Text
- XM Ready
- Auxiliary Input
- 1-bit D/A Converter
- Drive-S with 120dB S/N Ratio
- SSIR-EXA tuner, 18FM & 12AM presets
- Red key illumination
- Supplied wireless card remote (RM-X145A)
- Optional wireless rotary remote (RM-X6S)
- Optional wired rotary remote (RM-X4S)   

This Sony car stereo goes best installed with matching items from the Xplod series such as: 

Sony car stereo XS – V6941H 6 x 9” 4 - Way Speakers: 

- 6 x 9" HOP Woofer Cone
- Stroke Stabilizer Surround
- 2-5/8" Cone Mid
- 1" Balanced Dome PEI Tweeter, Super Tweeter
- 400W Peak Power (100W RMS)
- Flexible Mounting Options 

Sony car stereo XM-2100GTX 2/1 Channel Amplifier:

- 600W Max Power
- 100W x 2 RMS into 4 ohms, 20Hz-20kHz @ 0.04% THD
- 250W x 1 RMS into 4 ohms, 20Hz-20kHz @ 0.1% THD
- CEA-2006 Power Compliant
- Variable 50 - 300 Hz low pass filter
- 40 Hz EQ boost
- MOSFET power supply
- RCA & speaker level inputs

Sony car stereo XS-L102P5 10” Subwoofer: 

- 10" Polypropylene Cone
- 1200W Peak Power (330W RMS)
- Unique cone design offers superior rigidity
- Gold-plated Binding Posts
- Small sealed/bandpass enclosure optimized
- 4-Ohm Voice Coil
- 2005 Subwoofer Parameters

Like other modern car audio manufacturers, the Sony car stereo also offers video capable units for playing VCDs, DVDs. A good item from the Sony car stereo Dream System Series is the MV - 900SDS Mobile DVD Dream System. 

- 9" wide screen TFT display with swivel function
- DVD/CD-R/RW/VCD/MP3 Playback
- Built-in wired FM modulator
- Reversible display image
- Slot-load DVD Mechanism
- Memory Stick® media for playback of JPEG, MPEG, MP3
- Built-in Stereo Speakers
- A/V Input
- A/V Output
- Optical Digital Output (Dolby Digital®, dts®)
- IR transmitter for wireless headphones
- 2 sets of wireless headphones included
- Wireless card remote included

This unit is encased in a grey metallic finish and is ideally attached on the ceiling of the vehicle. 

It is also an amazing fact that a lot of enthusiasts also incorporate the PlayStation into their Sony car stereos, which is probably one of the reasons why the Sony car stereo system has earned quite a following.     

Kenwood Car Stereo Lets You Listen To The Future Of Car Audio. - This brand is a household name for every car audio enthusiast. Mention the name Kenwood car stereo and they will know what you’re talking about. 

Kenwood Car Stereo | Car Audio.
Kenwood car stereos have produced high quality consumer electronics, test equipment and communication equipment since 1946. Kenwood car stereos primarily specialize in the design, engineering and manufacture of wireless communication infrastructure but are also renowned in the production consumer mobile and home entertainment systems. Kenwood car stereos are also committed to creating the finest quality components with state of the art technologies that has earned them a huge following in the audio products scene.

At present, Kenwood car stereos have a very impressive product lineup that would make anyone drool over, whether he is an audio enthusiast or not. For the regular Joe who isn’t really into technical stuff, and is just looking for something nice to put into his ride, Kenwood car stereos offer sleek designs that will surely satisfy anyone’s craving for aesthetic. Tech-freaks and geeks will also be impressed with the specs a Kenwood car stereo has.  

Kenwood KVT-717DVD 7.0

A lot of Kenwood car stereo units nowadays include popup LCD panels for watching VCD/DVD movies. The Kenwood KVT-717DVD 7.0” Wide, Fully Motorized In-dash Monitor DVD/WMA/MP3 Receiver is a good candidate for any situation. 

• 7.0 inch Wide Color TFT Active Matrix Display
• Full-automatic Open/Close with slide and angle adjustments
• Interactive Touchscreen Control with OSD
• Audio Easy Control Mode while Playing Visual Source
• Selectable Wall Paper (6 Patterns)
• Installer/Backup Memory of Audio/Video Setup
• Maximum Output Power : 50W x 4 (MOSFET Power IC)
• 3 Preouts with 5V Pre-out Level
• 2 RCA AV Inputs / 1 RCA AV Output
• Video Input for Rear View Camera
• RGB Input for Navigation System
• System Q/ System E's+
• DVD Menu Direct Touch screen Control
• MPEG 1/2 Video files (.mpg) and JPEG files (.jpg) Playback
• Dual Zone Source & Volume Control
• DVD±R/RW Compatible
• External Media Control — iPod Ready
• Optional TV Tuner 

For those who might not get what the hell all of these means, just imagine this: a really thin monitor panel that smoothly retracts and extends at the push of a remote, crystal clear movie and picture playback, all encased in a beautiful black matte finish polymer casing done with a space age design. 

If all you want is a just a regular car stereo for playing CDs’, listening to mp3s or the radio, Kenwood car stereo have a lot to choose from. A good head unit would be the KDC-MP928 AAC/WMA/MP3/ CD Receiver with External Media Control. 

• Auto-Slide Detachable Faceplate
• Rotary Encoder & Jog Control Knob for Easy Operation
• 4096 Color OEL Display
• Display Customize Function
• Maximum Output Power : 50W x 4 (MOSFET Power IC)
• ACDrive (Advanced Codec Drive)
• AAC/WMA/MP3 Playback
• G-Analyzer (Graphic Motion Analyzer)
• Built-in DSP : DTA/System Q(4band P-EQ)/Digital E's/SRS
WOW Digital Effect
• O.D.D. (Offset Dual Differential) D/A System for Sound Quality
• Installer/User/Backup Memory of Audio Setup
• SIRIUS Satellite Radio Ready
• HD Radio Ready
• External Media Control — iPod Ready
• Dual Zone Source & Volume Control
• AUX Input
• Gold Plated 3 Preouts with 5V Pre-output Level

The Kenwood car stereo auto slide detachable faceplate allows you to take the faceplate (one which has all the buttons) in order to prevent theft by taking away the functionality of the unit left in the car. 

Look at any good car stereo system and you’ll probably see a Pioneer car stereo unit plugged into the console. Alongside with quality speakers and a strong lineup of accessories like LCD panels and navigational devices, Pioneer products/Pioneer car stereos have earned a huge following the world over.  

The Pioneer Company is a Tokyo-based corporation, and is one of the world leaders in digital entertainment products. The Pioneer Company was first founded in 1938 in Tokyo as a small radio and speaker repair shop business but today, they are recognized as a leader in technology advancements in the consumer electronics industry.
A Pioneer In Their Own Right: The Pioneer Car Stereo
The company is truly deserving of their name. They are respected for many innovations such as interactive cable TV, the Laser Disc player, developing the first Compact Disc player for the car and the first detachable face car stereo, DVD and DVD recording, plasma display, and organic electroluminescent display. Their strength in optical disc and display technology is complemented by its state-of-the-art software products and manufacturing capabilities.

Nowadays, Pioneer car stereo units are not just simple head units. A car stereo can easily be comprised of several items built into the console of the car. Hardware like navigational devices, DVD players with LCD panels, coupled with the standard array of compact disc, mp3 and cassette players now usually go together. One would be hard-pressed not to acquire all of these, as it is such a delight to see these units work harmoniously. But traditionally, a Pioneer car stereo unit is a head unit with a radio, cassette and cd player. No matter how bare-bones this might sound, anyone will surely be impressed with the sound quality and features a Pioneer car stereo can boot.

Something like the DEH-P90HDD Pioneer car stereo single CD player head unit. The DEH-P90HDD allows you to record CD Audio (from the unit itself or from a changer) onto a 10GB hard disc drive, which holds about 200 audio CD's (using ATRAC3 digital compression). Your CD's are recognized by the pre-installed Gracenote CDDB database, which includes auto-playlists that make finding a specific CD easy. This Pioneer car stereo unit can also play your MP3 CD's plus CD Audio, CD-RW, and CD-R discs. Also, the MagicGate Memory Stick player lets you play recorded Memory Stick tracks. The Organic EL display is easy to read and accepts image downloads, so you can customize its look. Built-in DSP offers a 13-band graphic EQ and a huge variety of tools. The DEH-P90HDD is XM Ready and provides a steering wheel remote.   

KEH-P4020 Pioneer
If cassettes are your thing, the KEH-P4020 Pioneer car stereo cassette player head unit is a good product to choose. It is a full logic cassette system with multi-color display, 45Wx4 High Power, EEQ™ equalizer system, Tuner, IP-Bus System Control, flap face and has a detachable face security. 

Pioneer speakersIf you’re planning to buy a Pioneer car stereo unit, why not match it with a set of Pioneer speakers too? Pioneer car stereo has made another innovation in their REV Series speakers, which incorporates technological breakthroughs in their IASCA award-winning Premier Reference Series (PRS) speakers. Rev Series speakers boast Pioneer’s Kevlar Fiber Composite Cones, Soft-dome tweeters and Wave guides. Each speaker features a bright yellow cone and distinctive wave guides, plus a six-spoke grill with a titanium finish that simulates chrome wheels.

With all these impressive products, is it still a wonder why they call Pioneer car stereos “Pioneer”?

If you are one of the many people across the country considering a new auto sound system, there is a great deal of good news. First of all, it is very possible to find a good bargain on a nice sound system for your car, truck, or SUV if you are willing to shop online and install the system yourself. The problem often lies not in the cost of the system but the price of the installation. However, the cost of installation is well worth the dollar amount for many of us who really have no clue what to do as far as a project of that scope goes. I for one am among the electronically challenged and not really willing to risk my dash board for an experiment in frustration and failed electronics.

That being said, there are many who are either perfectly and wonderfully capable of installing a nice auto sound system or are fortunate enough to know someone or someone who knows someone who is. For you, finding a great bargain online is probably the best way to go-provided you've actually been in the shop and heard the sound quality of the particular system you are considering. I would never recommend buying a system you've never heard in action no matter how great of a bargain you think you are getting.

I've found that some of these systems are not even as good as the minimal factory installed systems that come standard in most cars, trucks, or SUVs on the road today. You do not want to pay money and spend time and effort for the installation of a sound system that isn't at least better than the one you currently have.

There are times when you do not have to go with top of the line or well known brands in order to have a great sound or auto sound system. But there are some well-known, good quality makers of sound systems that do not cost a fortune. You can find some very nice sound systems that are not exactly top of the line but also offer great quality sound and excellent features (particularly when compared to factory installed sound systems).

If you're looking for a very nice auto sound system you can find some good ones by popular brands for well under $300. They have some that are even less expensive but those in the $300 range generally offer a little boost in quality from those that can be found at lower prices. Of course, this isn't always the case and you will occasionally find some excellent systems at even lower prices than this. You and you alone can tell if the system you choose is one that you will be happy with.

The thing to remember is to listen to the sounds of the systems then make your decision and compare prices. Alpine, Kenwood, and JVC all have excellent auto sound systems in a wide variety of price ranges. There are times with these systems that paying a little extra is worth it. If you are satisfied with the quality of a less expensive sound system however, there is no real reason why you should purchase a more expensive system. You are the one who will be riding in your car, truck, or SUV and it is only important what you think of the system you select.