Running LED with 4017

Running LED with 4017 complete with PCB layout. The series of 8 LED current is the basis for creating an 8-point LED. Slightly different from the running LED with IC 4017 (decade counter), 8 running this led is lit in sequence, but that has been previously flame does not die when the led is lit afterwards. 8 led to death after led to the fire-8. Meanwhile in the running LED (decade counter), the system LED lights like "point", there is only one LED that flashes between the tenth led.

Running LED with 4017

The main component is the IC 74LS164 (SHIFT REGISTER), with its timer is astable multivibrator circuit (using IC NE555).

The series will be more efficient when using a stable power supply (regulator) using IC Regulator 7805. Under this scheme a series of stable power supply 5 volts dc.

rangkaian LED berjalan PCB layout

Make a series letters from the LED , Things to consider before making the sign of the LED array,
1) Use LED nodes.
2) Paint the top of the PCB with a dark color (black).
3) Note the LED specifications. In this experiment use a 5mm diameter LED nodes
that emit red, specification voltage of 3 volts.



The assembly of LED:
1) One letter composed at most 5 columns and 7 rows.
2) One column mostly composed by 6 LEDs are arranged series.
3) Then the fifth column are connected in parallel.

4) Each column given the constraints, Rx, which amount depends on the number of LEDs in one column and depends also on the type of LED (in this experiment that used LED 5mm in diameter, clear with red light beam).
5) In a column consisting of 6 LEDs, Rx = 330 ohm, 5 LEDs, Rx = 560 Ohms, 4 LEDs, Rx = 680 Ohms
Remember, this provision applies to 5 mm LED red light beam nodes.
6) Every letter was given FCS9013 transistor amplifier.

Here is one letter LED scheme.
Make a series letters from the LED



Medium picture below is the lay out of the 2-letter nameplate. To make the sign 8 letter, copied from a second stay this letter.

Make a series letters from the LED


Example of LED on the letters A and B:

Make a series letters from the LED

Value Rx in the first and the fifth column (letter A) of 560 ohms, because it consists of 5 LEDs are arranged series. Rx in the second column, third, and fourth, amounting to 680 ohms because it consists of two LEDs.
Rx first column letter B, 330 ohms. Rx second column, third, fourth, and fifth at 680 ohms.

Subwoofer power amplifier circuit based on IC OPA541BM very suitable for use in subwoofer speakers, these amplifiers possess excellence in sound issued because the sound is very clear and issued in accordance with subwoofer speakers in a low tone.
Subwoofer power amplifier IC OPA541BM Circuit

120W amplifier with LM12

This is power amplifier with basic amplifiy on IC LM12.

This is BTL stereo power amplifier with basic amplifier on IC TDA7052 / TDA7053

BTL Stereo Amplifier TDA7052 / 3

Mini Amplifier with 3 Transistor

Mini 3 transistor amplifier is a simple amplifier with 50mW power drawn by 3 transitor.
The series of three mini-amplifier transistors can be used for loud speaker 8 ohm load. Source voltage required to activate the mini-amplifier can be drawn from the batteries 9V.Rangkaian 3 transistor amplifier is often used in simple portabe audio devices such as radios or small tape recorder. Mini-transistor amplifier circuit 3 is quite simple as shown in the figure below.





Mini Amplifier with 3 Transistor


Mini-transistor amplifier circuit 3 includes type of amplifier OTL (Output Transformer Less). Mini-transistor amplifier circuit 3 is used for output coupling capacitors. Amplifier circuit is simple and suitable when used for audio amplifier experiment.

Toggle switch in this article is a series of toggle switches that are controlled by infrared light. The series toggle switch is made from a combination of data flip-flop CD4013 2 units.
Receiver circuit of the infrared light signals arranged with infrared receiver as found on television remote receiver. Infrared signal from remote is used as clock signals and data to the data flip-flop first. then the second flip-flop data set as a toggle flip-flop toggle the output signal is used to drive the relay. for more details can be seen in thethe following image .



Toggle switch with Infra Red IR


Series Toggle Switch With Infra Red (IR) that is required to supply voltage range of 12VDC and the output of Toggle Switch With Infra Red (IR) is dapt used to turn on the lights or other electronic devices with DC or AC voltage source. Series Toggle Switch With Infra Red (IR) was isolated from the load that is placed for use as the final relay.

This time, there is a series of audio amplifer 20W as well, but using IC TDA 2005 as a series of his base amplifier.
The series of 2x20 Watt Audio Power Amplifier using TDA2005 can you see in the picture below.






TDA2005 2 X 20 Watt Power Amplifier


Technical Data:

Performance of TDA2005M: (for this circuit); At 4.14 V supply voltage: 2 x 20 watts (stereo) into 4 Ohms.
Distortion: Approx. 0.2% at 4 Watts into 4 ohm load.

Frequency Range: Approx. 20 Hz to 22 KHz.

Input Sensitivity: Approx. maximum 150 mV rms. .

Power supply: + 8 to 18 volts, approx. 3.5 Amps maximum per channel.

Power supply circuit to generate output below were variations between 1.3V DC to 12.2V DC with 1A current.
In addition, the power supply circuit is also equipped with over-current protection or shield against belebih flow. Power supply circuit is very simple, but the quality is quite good, made her basiskan regulator IC LM723 is a pretty legendary.




1.3V DC to 12.2V DC Regulator Power Supply


Description:

R2 to set the output voltage. The maximum current is determined by R3, over-current protection circuit inside the LM723 to detect the voltage on R3, if it reaches 0.65 V, the voltage output will be off her. So the current through R3 can not exceed 0.65 / R3 although output short-circuit in his.



C3 and C4 are ceramic capacitors, as much as possible directly soldered to the PCB, this is because the LM723 is prone to oscillation that is not cool.



LM723 works with 9.5V input voltage to 40 V DC and the LM723 can generate its own current of 150mA when the output voltage is not more than 6-7V under input voltage.



Specifications:

Output (value estimated):



Vmin = (R4 + R5) / (R5 * 1.3)

Vmax = (7.15 / R5) * (R4 + R5)



Imax = 0.65/R3



Max. Power on R3: 0.42/R3



Min. DC Input Voltage (pin 12 to pin 7): Vmax + 5



Component List:

B1 40V/2.5A

C1 2200uF (3300uF even better)

C2 4.7uF

C3 100nF

C4 1NF

C5 330nF

C6 100uF

Green LED D1

D2 1N4003

F1 0.2A F

F2 2A M

IC1 LM723 (in a DIL14 plastic package)

R1 1k

R2 Pot. 5k

R3 0.56R/2W



R4 3.3k

R5 4.7k

S1 250V/1A

T1 2N3055 on a heatsink 5K / W

TR1 220V/17V/1.5

This is a simple preamplifier circuit for electret condenser microphone.
using a LM1458 dual op amp IC. The circuit takes the audio signal rom the condenser microphone and amplifier it, so you can use the microphone as the input to some device which wouldn’t normally accept microphone level signals .

Condenser Pre Amplifier


Schematic Circuit of Microphone Electret

Condenser Pre Amplifier



The circuit requires a 6-9 volt supply. Output of the microphone amplifier can be made variable by connecting a 10kΩ potentiometer . Circuit’s gain can be increased by men perbesar the value of 47K, depending on the input sensitivity of the main amplifier system. The microphone should be housed in a small round enclosure.



List componet of condenser pre-amp mic circuit

Q1,Q2    : LM1458 Op-Amp

R1,R2,R3 : 4.7k ohm resistor

R4, R5   : 10k ohm resistor

R6,R7    : 47k ohm resistor

C1,      : 0.22uF ceramic capacitor

C2       : 1uF ceramic capacitor



Absolute maximum ratings of LM 1458 IC

Supply Voltage               :  ±18V

Power Dissipation            : 400 mW

Differential Input Voltage   : ±30V

Input Voltage                : ±15V

Output Short-Circuit Duration: Continuous

Operating Temperature Range  : 0°C to +70°C

Storage Temperature Range    : −65°C to +150°C

Lead Temperature             :(Soldering, 10 sec.) 260°C

Amplifier circuit is 150 watts power amplifier circuit is quite simple.
This circuit requires only 5 pieces of transistors as the main component of reinforcement. There is no equalizer option on this amplifier circuit because it can be said of this series is very simple, so do not you compare it with that sold in the market which are usually equipped with various sound system and equalizer settings. 


But to add to your collection circuit, this circuit is fairly easy and inexpensive to make and maybe one day you may need as a weak signal booster from your electronic circuit. Or you can also make this amplifier as an amplifier of high frequency signal from the output circuit animal repellent and I guarantee the results are very satisfactory.

150 watts power amplifier circuit


Power supply required is two-polarity power supply is + - 45 volts. Maximum power that can be obtained by this amplifier circuit is around 150 watts. As the volume control you can add potensio or variable resistor 10 Kohm in series at the input. Use dispasi loudspeaker with 150 watts power. Use a heatsink on the transistor-transistor driver loudspeaker or amplifier late as Q1 and Q2.

The switching regulator power supply used LM2575-5.0 on this schematic. You can make the stable voltage by using the 3 terminal regulator like LM317. However, because the output electric current and the inputted electric current are the same approximately, the difference between the input electric power (The input voltage x The input electric current) and the output power (The output voltage x The output current) is consumed as the heat with the regulator. Because it is, the efficiency isn�t good.
5 Volt Switching Regulator Power Supply

Data sheet for LM2575
SIMPLE SWITCHER 1A Step-Down Voltage Regulator
http://www.national.com/pf/LM/LM2575.htm

This inverter circuit can provide up to 800mA of 12V power from a 6V supply. For example, you could run 12V car accessories in a 6V (British?) car. The circuit is simple, about 75% efficient and quite useful. By changing just a few components, you can also modify it for different voltages.







6 to 12 Volt Power Supply Inverter


Part List:

R1, R4 2.2K 1/4W Resistor

R2, R3 4.7K 1/4W Resistor

R5 1K 1/4W Resistor

R6 1.5K 1/4W Resistor

R7 33K 1/4W Resistor

R8 10K 1/4W Resistor

C1,C2 0.1uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor

C3 470uF 25V Electrolytic Capcitor

D1 1N914 Diode

D2 1N4004 Diode

D3 12V 400mW Zener Diode

Q1, Q2, Q4 BC547 NPN Transistor

Q3 BD679 NPN Transistor

L1 See Notes

MISC Heatsink For Q3, Binding Posts (For Input/Output), Wire, Board

source:LINK

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If you, like so many other people in this day and age, arrive home from work stressed out and with the problems of the day still lingering,this simple little instrument will go a long way to relieving nervous tension.
Of the various types of feedback devices, probably the best approach for the amateur experimenter is the Galvanograph, better known as the Galvanic Skin Response Monitor. The instrument described here relies for its operation on changes in skin resistance in sympathy with changes in emotional state. An increase in tension level reduces skin resistance and, conversely, a decrease in tension is accompanied by an increase in skin resistance.
The correlation between emotional stress and skin resistance is still not fully understood. What is known, though, is that minute changes in the permeability of the skin produce corresponding voltage variations across two electrode pads attached to two fingers on the same hand.

Measure tension meter


Tension Monitor meter circuit

These signal fluctuations are amplified and fed to an oscillator to produce an audible tone. A decrease in pitch therefore signifies a decrease in tension, and vice-versa. A visual indicator in the form of a panel meter also aids the user in monitoring tension levels. The monitor is quite sensitive to fluctuations. During use, a sudden moment of stress, even a deep sigh, will increase the pitch and cause a shift of the meter needle. Circuit Details In the circuit diagram of Fig.1, IC1 is configured as an astable multivibrator to drive an 8-ohm miniature speaker LS1 via capacitor C3, resistor R6 and volume control potentiometer VR2. The latter allows users to set a desired level and avoid it becoming a distraction.
Whereas the trigger input of IC1 is normally connected to the positive rail via a resistor in a conventional 555 oscillator, here it is connected via resistor R4 to the emitter of transistor TR1. The base of TR1 is connected between one electrode pad and the voltage divider formed by potentiometer VR1 and resistor R1. It will be seen that with the pads fitted to the fingers, the tone level will be dependent on the setting of VR1 and skin resistance. Resistor R2 in the transistor base is necessary should the pads be accidentally touched together. A 1mA meter is fitted in the collector line, along with R3, as a visual indicator. Although not essential or intended to measure current levels, it does help to emphasize fluctuations in emotional level.
The design of the pads is not critical. For the prototype, stripboard was used. The tracks were wired together at one end and connected to a 30cm length of twin lighting flex. The pads were then glued to Velcro straps. When the unit is first switched on, a highpitched tone should be heard, rapidly diminishing and ceasing. Turn the Sensitivity control VR1 to the minimum setting. Attach the electrodes to the fleshy pads of the first two fingers on the less-dominant hand with the Velcro straps, firmly but not tight. Rest the hand comfortably and keep it reasonably still, allowing half a minute for the pads to “bond”. Normally, at the minimum setting, the oscillator will hardly tick over, unless the user is in a high state of anxiety. Keep in mind that any form of stimulant, and that includes tea, coffee, alcohol and cigarettes, will reduce one’s capacity to relax. Rotate the control until a medium pitched tone is obtained and apply your relaxation technique. The monitor does not teach any method of meditation or relaxation; it only monitors the effectiveness of the technique applied. The tone should slowly diminish, with fluctuations as unconscious thoughts flit across the mind.When the sound ceases altogether, repeat the above procedure by increasing VR1. Twenty minutes is considered by therapists to be an adequate relaxation session.

The EPE Minder consists of two type- approved transmitter units and a receiver. If either transmitter becomes separated from the receiver, a buzzer in the latter part will sound.
The receiver is fitted with a switch to allow the use of only one transmitter if required.

MIND HOW YOU GO

This system was originally designed as a two-channel child alarm (to protect either a single child or two children at the same time) but many other applications spring to mind. For example, one transmitter could be placed inside a briefcase and another in a coat pocket. If the user forgot to pick up either of these items and walked away, the buzzer would sound in the receiver. The receiver must be carried on the per- son in a way that would make it practically impossible to lose it. This could be done using a belt clip, for example. Note that it will not be possible to use this system if either the transmitter or receiver were placed inside metal containers or if there were substantial metallic “screening” objects between them.

OPERATING RANGE
The operating range may be adjusted according to the intended purpose. However, it does depend on conditions. Adjustment is carried out by means of “aerial link wires” on the circuit panels. With all these in place, the range of the prototype exceeds 12 metres in open air. It will also work throughout several rooms indoors if required. If the battery voltage in either transmit- ter or receiver falls below a certain value, or if a transmitter is switched off, a buzzer will sound. The specified batteries in the transmitters should provide several hun- dred hours of operation. Those in the receiver should provide around 100 hours.

PERSONAL CODE
The EPE Minder uses a system of digitally encoded low-power radio signals,
which pass from the transmitters to the receiver. The code is different for each transmitter so that the receiver is able to distinguish one from the other. Type-approved, pre-aligned transmitter and receiver modules that operate at 433MHz. are used. No traditional “radio” skills are needed and no licence is needed for their use in the UK.

TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT
The circuit diagram for a single trans- mitter unit is shown in Fig.1. Current is
supplied to the circuit from a 3V “coin” cell, B1, via on-off switch S2 and diode D1. The diode provides reverse-polarity protection. It is best to use the specified Schottky device which introduces a smaller forward voltage drop, and therefore less loss, than a conventional silicon diode (0·2V rather than 0·7V approximately). Capacitor C2 provides a small reserve of energy and pre- vents the supply voltage from fluctuating. This stabilises operation. A low power 7555 timer, IC1, is set up in a standard astable (pulse generator) con- figuration. While switched on, this produces a continuous train of on-off pulses at its output, pin 3.The choice of resistors R1, R2 and capacitor C1 provide one pulse per second for one of the transmitters (Unit A) and one pulse every 1·2 seconds for the other one (Unit B). In fact, the timings are slightly longer but it helps to consider them as above. Also, the on times are much longer than the off ones in each case. The purpose of this will be explained presently.




RECEIVER CIRCUIT

Receiver module, IC1, requires a supply of between 4·5V and 5·5V. The 6V nomi-
nal battery pack, B1, is brought within range by the forward drop of diode D5
(0·7V approx.) This diode also provides reverse-polarity protection. Capacitor C4 charges up and provides a small reserve of energy. This will be useful when the battery is nearing the end of its operating life. When the supply voltage falls below some 4V, the receiver stops working and the buzzer will sound. Below around 3V, the buzzer itself will not operate so it is important to check operation each time the units are used. Receiver IC1 should be of the a.m. (amplitude modulation) type as specified in the components list. As such, it will respond to the on-off pulses provided by the transmitter. The inexpensive super regenerative (rather than superhet) variety will be perfectly adequate. The low-power variants of these receivers have not been tested. Although for battery operation they would appear to be ideal, the standard type is more readily available.

The receiver may be considered as hav- ing separate r.f. (radio frequency) and a.f. (audio frequency) sections. These have individual supply inputs (pins 1, 10, 12 and 15 with some being duplicated). These are all connected together and decoupled using capacitor C1.

TESTING

Having completed the Receiver board, we can now commence testing all three
boards. It helps to minimise the Receiver “hold-off” time by adjusting preset VR1 fully anti-clockwise (as viewed from the left-hand side of the p.c.b.) and preset VR2 fully clockwise (as viewed from the right- hand side of the p.c.b.). Check that the Test link has been left unconnected to prevent IC4b signal from passing to transistor TR1’s base. Switch on Single Channel switch S3 so that Channel A is enabled. With On-Off switch S4 off, insert the batteries. Switch on. After a short delay, the buzzer WD1 should sound. Now place Transmitter A approximately
three metres away from the Receiver, insert the battery and switch on. The buzzer should begin to bleep every second. The same procedure is now repeated for Transmitter B. To do this, switch S3 off to disable Channel A and firmly twist together the ends of the Test link wires. It is not advisable to solder this connection unless the i.c.s are removed first. The buzzer should bleep at a slightly slower rate than for Transmitter A. It is unlikely that the time periods of the two transmitters will be the same (due to overlapping component tolerances).
However, if they are, one of them will need to be changed. Choose slightly higher values for resistors R1 and R2 to slow it down and vice versa. Remove the i.c.s before making any modifications.

HOLD-OFF TIME
When both transmitters have been test- ed, switch S3 on to enable both channels. presets VR1 and VR2 should now be adjusted to approximately mid-track posi- tion. This should provide a sufficient “hold off” time plus a small margin. The buzzer should now remain off and only sound when one of the transmitters is switched off or moved out of range. Leave them operating for several minutes. If the occasional spurious bleep is heard, increase the settings of VR1/VR2 to pre- vent this happening.

Power supply circuit to generate output below were variations between 1.3V DC to 12.2V DC with 1A current. In addition, the power supply circuit is also equipped with over-current protection or shield against belebih flow. Power supply circuit is very simple, but the quality is quite good, made her basiskan regulator IC LM723 is a pretty legendary.




1.3V DC to 12.2V DC Regulator Power Supply


Description:

R2 to set the output voltage. The maximum current is determined by R3, over-current protection circuit inside the LM723 to detect the voltage on R3, if it reaches 0.65 V, the voltage output will be off her. So the current through R3 can not exceed 0.65 / R3 although output short-circuit in his.



C3 and C4 are ceramic capacitors, as much as possible directly soldered to the PCB, this is because the LM723 is prone to oscillation that is not cool.



LM723 works with 9.5V input voltage to 40 V DC and the LM723 can generate its own current of 150mA when the output voltage is not more than 6-7V under input voltage.



Specifications:

Output (value estimated):



Vmin = (R4 + R5) / (R5 * 1.3)

Vmax = (7.15 / R5) * (R4 + R5)



Imax = 0.65/R3



Max. Power on R3: 0.42/R3



Min. DC Input Voltage (pin 12 to pin 7): Vmax + 5



Component List:

B1 40V/2.5A

C1 2200uF (3300uF even better)

C2 4.7uF

C3 100nF

C4 1NF

C5 330nF

C6 100uF

Green LED D1

D2 1N4003

F1 0.2A F

F2 2A M

IC1 LM723 (in a DIL14 plastic package)

R1 1k

R2 Pot. 5k

R3 0.56R/2W



R4 3.3k

R5 4.7k

S1 250V/1A

T1 2N3055 on a heatsink 5K / W

TR1 220V/17V/1.5

LM4651 and LM4652 170W power amplifier

170 Watt power amplifier is a power amplifier that is built by IC LM4651 and LM4652.

Part of this power amplifier driver using the LM4651 IC designed specifically for the purpose of the class AB amplifier driver with short circuit protection feature, containing under voltage, thermal shutdown protection and standby functions. Section 170 Watt power amplifier using LM4651 IC with a MOSFET power amplifier is equipped with temperature sensors that will be used by IC LM4651 as controlnya thermal signal. IC IC LM4651 and LM4652 are designed specifically to each other in pairs to create a class AB power amplifier with protection features are detailed. Detailed series of 170 Watt power amplifier can be seen in thethe following figure .

LM4651 and LM4652 170W power amplifier

Power amplifier circuit requires supply voltages +22 V DC symmetrical 0-22V. Power Amplifier with IC LM4651 and LM4652 are often used in portable HiFi systems such as powered speakers, power subwoofer and car audio power Booter. D1, D2, D3 and D4 in series 170 watt power amplifier with LM4651 and LM4652 is a 22V zener diode.

170 Watt power amplifier is a power amplifier that is built by IC LM4651 and LM4652.


Part of this power amplifier driver using the LM4651 IC designed specifically for the purpose of the class AB amplifier driver with short circuit protection feature, containing under voltage, thermal shutdown protection and standby functions. Section 170 Watt power amplifier using LM4651 IC with a MOSFET power amplifier is equipped with temperature sensors that will be used by IC LM4651 as controlnya thermal signal. IC IC LM4651 and LM4652 are designed specifically to each other in pairs to create a class AB power amplifier with protection features are detailed. Detailed series of 170 Watt power amplifier can be seen in thethe following figure .

170W power amplifier LM4651 and LM4652

Power amplifier circuit requires supply voltages +22 V DC symmetrical 0-22V. Power Amplifier with IC LM4651 and LM4652 are often used in portable HiFi systems such as powered speakers, power subwoofer and car audio power Booter. D1, D2, D3 and D4 in series 170 watt power amplifier with LM4651 and LM4652 is a 22V zener diode.

Tube Power Amplifier 35W Push Pull is made using a tube and eventually compiled configuration push-pull amplifier. Tube Power Amplifier 35W Push Pull tube til it using EL-34 as the amplifier end.
In the power amplifier that is made with a tube at a glance looks simple because the use of active components that are not complex. It should be noted that the use of tubes in Tube Power Amplifier 35W Push Pull require a high voltage supply, therefore in the process of making and finishing must be careful of high voltage and radiation. Detailed series of Tube Power Amplifier 35W Push Pull can be seen in the following figure.

Tube Power Amplifier Series 35W Push Pull

Sign Components Tube Power Amplifier 35W Push Pull
R1 = 470K 0.5 W
R2-5 = 2K2 0.5W
R3 = 150K 0.5W
R4 = 220K 0.5W
R6-10 = 56K 0.5W
R7 = 3.9K 0.5W
R8 = 220R 0.5W
R9 = 1M 0.5W
R11 = 39K 1W
R12-23 = 180K 0.5W
R13-21 = 820K 0.5W
R14-22 = 5K6 0.5W
R15-20 = 680K 0.5W
R16-19 = 100K 0.5W
R17-18 = 3K3 1W
R24 = 470R 2W
TR1-2 = 470R 1W Variable (adj. 270Ω)
C1-3-6-7 = 0.1uf 630V
C2 = 220pF 600v
C4-5 = 16uF 550V
C8-9 = 0.1uF 630V
C10-14 = 0.47uF 630V
C11-13 = 25uF 40V
V1 = E80CC
V2 = E80CC
V3-4 = EL34
Rectifier tube = Z2C
Audio Transformer for T1 = 2x EL34 Push Pull
Power amplifier with tubes often become the choice for a small slewrate so that the resulting audio quality is guaranteed. Tube Power Amplifier 35W in the circuit that is required to supply a high DC voltage is +220 VDC ddengan order to work properly.

Power supply for EL-34 tube is specially designed for the purposes of power supply at the push-pull amplifier with EL-34 tube as in article 35 Watt Tube Power Amplifier Push Pull before.
Power supply for EL-34 tube amplifier is made with transformers CT and 2 pieces diode as rectifier. Mechanical filters are applied in the power supply uses 3 levels. Power supply for tube power amplifier can deliver output voltages +220 VDC. Circuit details can be seen in the following figure.


The above power supply circuit has a high output voltage so that need to be considered in the manufacture and perakitanya because electricity can tesengat (stun). Power Supply For Tube Power Amplifier With Diode EL-34 was created specifically for the power amplifier tube push pull EL-34.

Turbo Bass Circuit

Turbo Bass Circuit
Turbo Bass Circuit
Turbo Bass Circuit

Class A headphone amplifier

Class A headphone amplifier
Class A headphone amplifier

HiFi Headphone amplifier

HiFi Headphone amplifier

HiFi Headphone amplifier'img border=
HiFi Headphone amplifier

TDA1308T Headphone amplifier circuit 
TDA1308T Headphone amplifier circuit
TDA1308T Headphone amplifier circuit

Headphone amplifier circuit

Headphone amplifier circuit with op amp ic OPA134, 2134, NE5532, 5534.
Headphone amplifier circuit
Headphone amplifier circuit with op amp

Hi-Fi 25W Power Amplifier (Class-A) Schematics Circuit
Hi-Fi 25W Power Amplifier (Class-A)
Click to view larger

Transceiver Homebrew QRP SSB 80M Band

Radio communication transceiver is a radio transmitter at the same time the plane doubles as a radio receiver used for communication purposes.
It consists of the transmitter and the receiver are assembled in an integrated way. In mulamula generation, the transmitter or receiver or transmitter and receiver sections are assembled separately and is part of a stand sendirisendiri and can work well sendirisendiri Currently employed both parts are integrated in turn.



Transceiver Homebrew QRP SSB 80M Band


Aircraft simple transmitter consists of an oscillator generating radio vibration and this vibration after vibration boarded with our voice, in a technique called dimodulir radio, then by the antenna is converted into radio waves and transmitted. As we know that the sound waves we can not reach long distances, although its power is quite large, while the radio waves with a relatively small force can reach a distance of thousands of kilometers. In order for our voice can reach a far distance, then our voice superimposed on radio wave radio results from the vibration generator, called a carrier wave or carrier and the carrier wave was going to deliver our voice to distant places.



In a place far earlier, the radio waves emitted by the antenna received our speaker. By the antenna, radio waves had, in the form of electromagnetic waves is converted into electrical vibrations and into the receiver.



In our speaker receiver plane, vibration and vibration carriernya then discarded and then raised our voices be accommodated through the speakers. With this technique it is possible modilasi an audio vibrations reach a far range.



We sound vibrations enter the transmitter through a microphone, microphone output was often needs to be strengthened first with an audio amplifier is called a microphone preamplifier can be superimposed on the carrier for the modulator.



To increase the transmission power of a transmitter, vibration of the oscillator was before the emitted amplified first with a radio frequncy amplifier. Strengthening can be done once and can also be done more than once. Transmitter is not reinforced is called a level transmitter and the reinforced one called two-level and beyond. In general, to reach 100 Watt transmit power need to strengthen the 3 times, the first amplifier is called predriver, the next amplifier called the driver and final amplifier called the final amplifier.







Block Diagram of SSB Transceiver



If we're talking about the Single Side Band, then we touched more on amplitude modulation (AM). At each modulation we do we actually do the mixing between the radio frequency to audio frequency. Any mixing of two frequencies will occur the second summation process and at the same frequency reduction process occurs from both frequencies.



So every time we memodulir carrier, will produce two frequencies at once. For example, a carrier with a frequency of 3000 Kc we modulir with audio ferkuensi 3 Kc, the result is 3003 Kc and Kc 2997, or said occurred two sides of the band is the upper side and lower side. The top side and bottom side are shaped symetris, so if it is a direct result of modulation we mean we memancarakan exude the same two goods.



If we shine the way mentioned above, we use the mode is said to Double Side Band (DSB) because the carrier that includes top and bottom sides are emitted together. In factory-made plane, this mode is usually coded in terms actual AM radio is the DSB technique.



We know there are two kinds of ways to make the SSB, the first way is by phase shift method, another way is by filtering methods. The first way is not widely used and factory-made aircraft SSB generally use filtering.



Signal DSBSC, before the amplified and transmitted, is inserted into the SSB filter in advance to produce LSB or USB. Filters are used for this purpose is filtering crystal or mechanical filters. SSB transmitter is said to be more efficient than AM (DSB), we can give this picture as follows. For example transmitter AM (DSB) with power 150 Watt (100% modulation depth), then power on the USB and LSB respectively and the carrier has a 25 Watt 100 Watt power. We know that the audio side we are on the band. In the SSB emission, emitted only one side band LSB or USB is a powernya only 25 Watt.



With SSB 25 Watt beam, the audio we have to arrive at destination with the same clarity of information with jet AM (DSB) 150 Watt earlier.



Another advantage of SSB is the wide-band mode that can be more narrow. For the purposes of communication, SSB mode requires only the band width of about 3 Kc, while the DSB mode takes about 6 Kc, thus providing savings SSB mode the use of the band.



In the detector a SSB receiver, the received signal must be mixed in advance with the frequency of the outcome of a Beat Frequency Oscillator (BFO) and used as the BFO carrier oscillator.







Homebrew QRP SSB Transceiver circuit 80m Band



In general, the transceiver has the following block diagram, basically Transceiver tebagi into three main parts: Part VFO and BFO Part Transmitter (transmitter) and Section Receiver (receiver), where there are some special blocks that are used for both paths are either transmitter or receiver. Simply in this transceiver merkit Use the tools that we only Multi tester, RF Probe, SWR and Power Meter, Tone Generator Af 1Kc and multi-band Radio HF SSB to function as a monitor frequency BFO, VFO, monitor Balanced Modulator Exciter at once both the transmitter or receivers .







Data Transceiver:



Frekwency Range: 3700 Kc a / d 3900 Kc



Mode: LSB Singgle conversi



IF: 455 Kc (Ceramic Filter SFU type 455)



Local oscillator: VFO with Fine Tuning varactor diode



BFO: Ceramic Filter 455 SFU



RF PA: Power FET IRF640, IRF540, IRFZ44



DC: 13.8 V



RF Power: Over 8Watt







Description Schema.



The order of assembly sequence of assembling consecutive start BFO, VFO, AF Amp, IF amplifier and detector products to filter amplifier circuit, Mic Amplifier, Balanced modulator, RX mixer + Rf amplifier, mixer TX last order to facilitate the checking of each unit due to series This is a merger of several units of its own circuit.







BFO.



Memprgunakan SFU type ceramic filters used 455 two-foot middle leg to ground is coupled with capacitor and capacitor trimer and one leg edges to the base of the transistor, BFO uses two types of 2SC1815 transistors. Tc 1 to set the BFO on 453.5Kc frekwensy being black 455Kc IF transformer to regulate the level rather than BFO. To check this The set uses RF Probe. At the secondary BFO output T9 check with RF probe set T9 smpai maximum output level monitor in the radio frequency or HF trimer and Counter set Capacitor capacitor pararelnya until fulfilled the required frequency of 453.5Kc. To check whether there are oscillations in the BFO off Ceramik filter whether RF probe was still moving when he checks it again rangakain ceramik here if we filter out the RF probe is not moving.







VFO.



For we use the VFO FET 2SK192 Type and reinforced with a single fruit type transistor 2SC1815. Raft of this series as neat munkin with component selection, especially capacitor here we use a paper capacitor in series of Colpits oscillator. Close this series with a metal box along with all Varconya. VFO same testing with the BFO circuit Trime Koker Ferrite T13 dapakan frequency monitor the frequency of 4100 Kc s / d 4300 Kc obtained in case of no frequency range is set set the number of coil and capacitor values ​​bypas to groundnya.







AF amplifier.



AF Amplifier IC type LM386 used raft this section and check out by Spiker at putnya. Plug the foot of its inputs with a screwdriver had no defects at the time vulume potensio enlarged.







IF AMP AND PRODUCT detector.



Raft had Produc detectornya from starting until the fourth diode 1N60 IF transformer T7 455 black color until the transformer bypass capacitor to ground. Plug one side of the transformer with a screwdriver kai harden the audio volume on the speakers should be no reaction. Attach the amplifier transistor for testing at its base on the speaker should be louder voice. Raft this section everything.







FILTER amplifier.



Put all the components properly to eighth ceramic filter installed all. Just listen to the speaker plug on the input or pairs if a small number of meters of cable serves as an antenna trim T6 and T8 listen to the voice on the speaker until no defects dispeaker be hissed loudly.







RX MIXER AND RF amplifiers.



This series of rafts with the good and right in making the winding must be in a state of neat. Enter Snyal VFO to try to monitor the input mixer is QSO friends turn ferrite in successive Koker turu of T3 and T4 to get a strong signal reception and set the T1 and T2 ferrite to signal strong receipts received with respect to the level of the S Meter. If that is not found try to check this section further. Thus selesei we've Section Receiver unit.







MIC amplifier.



Raft of this section and replace all the LM 741 IC listen with headphones turn out putnya potensio putnya try out the level of talk in the microphone must be perfect without any defects in the out putnya.







BALANCE modulator.

Balanced modulator uses AN612 ic type commonly used on the CB radio. Raft all components correctly. To check this series of pairs of probes to the output at ic AN612 when no signal on the IC probe set trimpot until the deviation of zero and then try to plug in with tweezers pda mic input amplifier should have needle probe deviation. Then plug micropon try talking meter on the probe to move the motion according to your speech input level. Put some small cable length as the antenna you are trying to monitor diradio HF signal here was DSB Uper and Lower Side band sound. Dengarka until there is no defect here is selesei sets. Then go Filter amplifier output to try to talk Rangkian denagan put up some yards kabbel to secondary T6 try IF 455 White color monitor frequency of 455 Kc diradio on and try to talk trim ferrite Ferrite T6 and T8 until you hear the sound on USB diradio no oscillation and no deviation selef the meter on the probe. If on your radio monitors have didapatka perfect sound means you've selesei at once to part If rceifernya.







TX MIXER.

Raft section make this all too well circumference at T11 and T12 as neat as possible. Mixer that we use the type of premises IC TA7310 2SC1815 transistor amplifier pairs as well. Then plug VFO output and Out put Balnce Modulatornya on laulu TA7310 ic input probe pairs give the mic input with tone generator af ferrite trim T11 and T12 refer to deviation meter probe to obtain the largest deviation meter. Put microppon try talking dimicropon deviation meter see if we're not talking micropon but no deviation on the meter needle probe set trim T11 and T12 until no deviation in meters try to talk again in micropon deviation meter should move according to their level talks on the microphone. Try installing a few meters of the small wires on the monitor amplifier output tx diradio exciter in accordance with the frequency of our work with the fashion side band LSB if we do not get on the LSB mode with sempurana set again trimer capacitor on the BFO and rotate slightly if T8 transformer ferrite in black color smpai obtained side band we want. Up here seleseilah exciter circuit.







TX PA amplifier.

PA series we take the type of Power FET because it is cheap and easily available in the market. Create a transformer with a good and right not to email pda scuffed pair of wires until there is a first level transistor 2SC1815 output pairs of probes on trying to talk on the microphone deviation at Beh probe must be greater than the level of exciter here should not happen if not self-oscillation oscillation talk there is no deviation on the meter needle probe. In the event of self-oscillation try to check the part. Similarly, the driver assembly. Drivers are taking transistor type 2 SC1162. gained power level meter must be greater than the previous level as well. Then the final units also make coils as neat as possible. Testing out first input of the exciter arur Pa measuring voltage trimpot should not exceed 3V plug out put a probe hyarus no deviation on the meter. In the event of significant deviation occurs in pagian the oscilasi cell. Then plug the input of the exciter ac voltmeter pairs of avo meter try to speak in micropon meter on ac at avo meter should show a few volts ac in accordance with the level of talking on the microphone.



LOW PASS FILTER.

Create a winding low pass filter with a nice and neat L1 and L2. pairs of all components of the relay to properly check penyambunngan pairs dumy 50 Ohm load at the antenna output connector do not forget to SWR and Power meter is installed. Speaking at a microphone set set ferrite Koker L1 and L2 to obtain the maximum and then check SWR poiwer it must appoint 1: 1 with dumy Load 50 ohms if not check again Low Pass filters. After iti try to plug the 80m band antenna connector is on your monitor qrp radio QSO friends who try to enter it and asked for the report



source [link

Power supply circuit to generate output below were variations between 1.3V DC to 12.2V DC with 1A current.
In addition, the power supply circuit is also equipped with over-current protection or shield against belebih flow. Power supply circuit is very simple, but the quality is quite good, made her basiskan regulator IC LM723 is a pretty legendary.




1.3V DC to 12.2V DC Regulator Power Supply


Description:

R2 to set the output voltage. The maximum current is determined by R3, over-current protection circuit inside the LM723 to detect the voltage on R3, if it reaches 0.65 V, the voltage output will be off her. So the current through R3 can not exceed 0.65 / R3 although output short-circuit in his.



C3 and C4 are ceramic capacitors, as much as possible directly soldered to the PCB, this is because the LM723 is prone to oscillation that is not cool.



LM723 works with 9.5V input voltage to 40 V DC and the LM723 can generate its own current of 150mA when the output voltage is not more than 6-7V under input voltage.



Specifications:

Output (value estimated):



Vmin = (R4 + R5) / (R5 * 1.3)

Vmax = (7.15 / R5) * (R4 + R5)



Imax = 0.65/R3



Max. Power on R3: 0.42/R3



Min. DC Input Voltage (pin 12 to pin 7): Vmax + 5



Component List:

B1 40V/2.5A

C1 2200uF (3300uF even better)

C2 4.7uF

C3 100nF

C4 1NF

C5 330nF

C6 100uF

Green LED D1

D2 1N4003

F1 0.2A F

F2 2A M

IC1 LM723 (in a DIL14 plastic package)

R1 1k

R2 Pot. 5k

R3 0.56R/2W



R4 3.3k

R5 4.7k

S1 250V/1A

T1 2N3055 on a heatsink 5K / W

TR1 220V/17V/1.5



source [link

Flash Lights with HT2014L

Flash Lights with HT2014L




This scheme is almost the same with a flash light with LM3909. In this scheme only requires IC HT2014L as a leader, and a resistor and LED. For voltage here need ration power around 4.5 V. You can apply this series to a wider scale in comparing the use IC LM3909. For the scheme are below:



flash lights circuit

Toggle Switch with IR

Toggle switch in this article is a series of toggle switches that are controlled by infrared light. The series toggle switch is made from a combination of data flip-flop CD4013 2 units. Receiver circuit of the infrared light signals arranged with infrared receiver as found on television remote receiver. Infrared signal from remote is used as clock signals and data to the data flip-flop first. then the second flip-flop data set as a toggle flip-flop toggle the output signal is used to drive the relay. for more details can be seen in thethe following image .



Toggle switch with Infra Red IR


Series Toggle Switch With Infra Red (IR) that is required to supply voltage range of 12VDC and the output of Toggle Switch With Infra Red (IR) is dapt used to turn on the lights or other electronic devices with DC or AC voltage source. Series Toggle Switch With Infra Red (IR) was isolated from the load that is placed for use as the final relay.


source [link

8 Relay Control Circuit

8 Relay Control Circuit
R1-8=4.7 Kohms T1-8= BD139 (R1-8=15 Kohms if T1-8=BD679)
RL1-8=6V-24V dc Relay D1-8=1N4148

TDA7294 150 W Power Amplifier

This is power amplifier based on IC TDA7294 with output power 150W with 8 ohm impedance, source voltage + - 25V. for circuit see image below.

TDA7294 150 W Power Amplifier
TDA7294 Power Amplifier

See figure below its power amplifier using transistor mosfet as amplifier.
Mosfet Amplifier with power output 400W
Mosfet Amplifier with power output 400W

230Volt LED Circuit

This is a circuit that is used to menhidupkan LED with voltage 230Volt, 230Volt it so that the voltage must be lowered in accordance with the needs of the LED itself. To lower it even necessary circuit as below.

230Volt LED Circuit

The CDI ignition circuit produces a spark from an ignition coil by discharging a capacitor across the primary of the coil. A 2uF capacitor is charged to about 340 volts and the discharge is controlled by an SCR.

Skema Rangkaian Pengapian Motor - CDI

A Schmitt trigger oscillator (74C14) and MOSFET (IRF510) are used to drive the low voltage side of a small (120/12 volt) power transformer and a voltage doubler arrangement is used on the high voltage side to increase the capacitor voltage to about 340 volts.

A similar Schmitt trigger oscillator is used to trigger the SCR about 4 times per second. The power supply is gated off during the discharge time so that the SCR will stop conducting and return to it's blocking state. The diode connected from the 3904 to pin 9 of the 74C14 causes the power supply oscillator to stop during discharge time. The circuit draws only about 200 milliamps from a 12 volt source and delivers almost twice the normal energy of a conventional ignition circuit.

High voltage from the coil is about 10KV using a 3/8 inch spark gap at normal air temperature and pressure. Spark rate can be increased to possibly 10 Hertz without losing much spark intensity, but is limited by the low frequency power transformer and duty cycle of the oscillator. For faster spark rates, a higher frequency and lower impedance supply would be required. Note that the ignition coil is not grounded and presents a shock hazard on all of it's terminals. Use CAUTION when operating the circuit.

An alternate method of connecting the coil is to ground the (-) terminal and relocate the capacitor between the cathode of the rectifier diode and the positive coil terminal. The SCR is then placed between ground and the +340 volt side of the capacitor. This reduces the shock hazard and is the usual configuration in automotive applications.

10Mhz to 1 MHz Frequency Converter Circuit

10Mhz to 1 MHz Frequency Converter

Part ListIC1 7404 = 1
IC2 7490A = 1
R 1 K = 2
R 3.3 K = 1
C Trim Polymer 39 pF = 1
C Electrophoresis 4.7 uF 16V = 1
C Milar 47 nF 16 V = 1
C Milar 10 nF 16 V = 1
C Ceramic 68 pF 50 V = 1 

See figure below its Control Relay Circuit Schematics.



Control Relay Circuit

6 to 12 Volt Converter

Below its a converter circuit voltage from 6 Volt to 12 Volt DC.

6 to 12 Volt Converter
6 Volt to 12 Volt DC

Part List :
R1, R4 2 .2K 1/4W Resistor
R2, R3 4.7K 1/4W Resistor
R5 1K 1/4W Resistor
R6 1.5K 1/4W Resistor
R7 33K 1/4W Resistor
R8 10K 1/4W Resistor
C1,C2 0.1uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C3 470uF 25V Electrolytic Capcitor
D1 1N914 Diode
D2 1N4004 Diode
D3 12V 400mW Zener Diode
Q1, Q2, Q4 BC547 NPN Transistor
Q3 BD679 NPN Transistor
L1 See Notes
Notes
1. L1 is a custom inductor wound with about 80 turns of 0.5mm magnet wire around a toroidal core with a 40mm outside diameter.

2. Different values of D3 can be used to get different output voltages from about 0.6V to around 30V. Note that at higher voltages the circuit might not perform as well and may not produce as much current. You may also need to use a larger C3 for higher voltages and/or higher currents.

3. You can use a larger value for C3 to provide better filtering.

4. The circuit will require about 2A from the 6V supply to provide the full 800mA at 12V.

Amplifier circuit below is a series of amplifiers with the amplifier transistor and mosfet. This amplifier output power ranging from 230W up to 400W.

230 - 400 Watt Power Amplifier MOSFET
230 - 400 Watt Power Amplifier


800W Power Amplifier MOSFET

This Figure is a schematic power amplifier with power 800 Watt and driver and booster using MOSFET.
800W Power Amplifier MOSFET
Audio Power Amplifier with power output 800W

Power supply circuit to generate output below were variations between 1.3V DC to 12.2V DC with 1A current.

1.3 - 12.2 VDC Variable Power Supply
In addition, the power supply circuit is also equipped with over-current protection or shield against belebih flow. Power supply circuit is very simple, but the quality is quite good, made ​​her basiccally regulator IC LM723 is a fairly legendary.

Maybe we are more familiar with the term Minimum System AT89C2051 circuit, but this time I present a circuit which is not only a series of Minimum System AT89C2051 but more than that.

System circuit (not) Minimum (Evaluation Board) AT89C2051 and AT89C4051

The circuit is more deserves to be called Evaluation Board AT89C2051 and AT89C4051. Some of the advantages of circuit Minimum System AT89C2051 / AT89C2051 and AT89C4051 Evaluation Board which I was present this time, hardware-hardware support below:


RS-232 interface, DB-9
Header for LCD display
I2C, PCF8574 I / O extender
AT24C04, I2C EEPROM

This 200W power amplifier circuit using IC STK 4050.
STK 4050 is a power amplifier module is very powerful, because the IC is already a module then only needed a little extra components to build a reliable 200W Power Amplifier. Here is a picture series of Power Amplifier ICs 200W use STK 4050 complete with its power supply:
200W power amplifier complete power supply

Simple Inverter with Two Transistors

The series below is a simple inverter circuit that will change the voltage of 12v dc to 220v ac, with use drive transistor 32 as its tip.
Inverter circuit is very simple and easy to assemble and is perfect for just starting to learn to assemble electronic circuits, you can use the transformer 2A to produce about 20 watts output. Do not forget to install coolers in its transistors. good luck.
Simple Inverter with Two Transistors

Stereo power amplifier is less in the bass tones, but if a speaker that sounds just feels solid bass sound, there are several possibilities, the first one speaker cable upside down, try alternating bass and tone tests.
If still, you need to use 2 power supply or attempting to use this circuit. Note this circuit works for a power amp that is less power transformer with 2 speakers (stereo). One of the speaker cable (output) should be reversed, this is okay, just a game to lighten the work phase transformer from the blow bass.

We recommend that before you try this circuit, turn one speaker cable and a second test speakers with bass tones, the bass should be mutually reduce (bass-bass = 0). Next remove the driver from boknya and turn the speakers (the speaker drivers facing into the wall), the bass should grow (bass + bass = 2bass). One record store in the town of Indramayu is taking this simple way, certainly looks magnet speakers, great.

The heart of this circuit using IC with 2 op-amps, can type JRC4558, LF353, TL072, TL082, and similar. Vcc = + /-70Vdc. If Vcc = + /-42Vdc, replace the value of R9 and R10 to 2K2.
Op-amp 1 functions as a buffer, while the op-amp to-2 function as inverting the phase 180 ', both have a reinforcement of 1 times.

Improving Performance Bass Amplifier

Improving Performance Bass Amplifier

List of components:
R1, 2,5,6 .......... 100K
R3, 4 ................ 2K2
R7 ................... 100
R9, 10 .............. 2K2-3K3
C1, 2 ............... 100uf/25V
D1, 2 ............... 15V Zener
IC1 ................. TL072

Amplilfier power series from the beginning until now did not experience any changes. Some say this series is good, but the series was good fitting assembly and tested the results are not as we expected.
The problem is usually treble is less subtle, less sound, sound breaking, buzz, middle of the field tested the bass sound is lost. so you do not have to believe what people 100%. The quality amplifier built-up would differ greatly with the amplifier assembly, a series can be the same but the quality will depend on who manufacture it.

Here are a few tricks to try

How to cope with a buzzing sound
Power amplifiers are often used in the field blazer. This circuit is said said person is a bell assembly. But you do not immediately interested in this power, the circuit rather complicated and difficult to understand reflect the intelligence of people who first mendisainnya. In my opinion a great power is the power of simple, inexpensive, easily assembled and rational. You do not need to use expensive components such as the price of tantalum capacitors, power mosfet and the other expensive. This does not determine the quality of the power amp so that we raft. Power of sometimes causing buzzing, to overcome that is by holding the line input jack ground to the ground with 10-22 ohm resistors. So do not just take the ground input from the ground but held first with the R 10 ohms.


How to setting bias trimpot
Rotate the trimpot bias (if any) until the drain current of 50-100mA on each power transistor, in order to avoid defects treble in volume in the top position at 10. The risks are so panassss heatsink! (This setting marks on plate A-AB)

Offset trimpot setting
At the time of input without a signal, turn the trimpot so that the voltage on the speaker offsets actually read 0 volts. If you do not want to bother, use and entrust it with ic type series from Hitachi HA17741 IC brand quality or other! This is the heart of the series, 90-95% of quality is determined from the IC circuit this!

Overcoming the voice
Use pre-amp circuit to increase the signal of at least 2 times. normally and should pre-amp circuit uses IC op-amps with +12 V minimum supply-12V. Raise his mid tone!
If hard you do not want to just use the tone control circuit IC is his mid!
The secret is not in his mid tone alone, but the signal output from the IC op-amps are usually large.

Treble rupture
Excessive treble will damage the power amp, power rather than out even ngedrop. Handle, attach the filter capacitor on the input 1NF power amp to ground to ensure the signal is not disabled. Always use a quality active components such as ICs and transistors, 500 price difference will also be different results.
Use a large cable and short as possible, especially for leg power transistor, and this transistor should be directly soldered to the pcb.

Missing bass in field
Usually power for field use supplay CT 50V 50V transformer, or at least 42V 42V ct. The greater the greater the supply voltage watt channeled though the series is written only 300-400 Watts only. This course uses Elko capacitors with voltage 80-100V. 10.000uF/100V capacitor will be equal to 4X10.000uF/50V and of course voltage capacitor is filled with full / almost full.
Try to use a strong Elko at temperatures of 105 'C. Capacitors are strong in supply of more than nominal voltage is written on his body. For example 4700uF/50V 85'C capacitor will quickly explode in voltage 51V 85'C. And Elko will be strong 105'C 4700uF/50V voltage supplied more than 50V at a temperature of 85'C. Elco so that it does not quickly explode if given the full voltage, keep its temperature as cold as possible, fan with the cool air.

For speaker
Try using a driver speakers that have a large spool diameter fitted with a suitable size bok. Usually included examples of the parameters / dimensions bok. Size bok bok2 usually larger than that sold in the market. if you force using bok that from this market, use driver type G12-80 (sorry no fear brand called promotion) speakers with bass tones to wall size small. Bok wall should be thick, strong and do not forget glued! Bok who will not be glued with a different sound, especially bass tones, prove it!

Heat Sensor
The form of transistor, the transistor is usually type BD139 MJE340 or it could be located in the center, flanked by a pair of transistors having a certain equal. These transistors must be mounted on the main heatsink to detect the heat generated by power transistors. It acts to lower bias currents at the hot heatsink. So what heatsink and power transistors must be set diposisi hot? Yes objectives nothing to prevent the signal from the defect (in class A or AB), with consequent heat. This class is not necessary and will not be felt if you only want the bass tones only. Goal setting on. AB grade is still crystal clear sound even though the maximum volume positioned rotated (in the middle of the field).
It is unlikely, but it's closer.

Large heatsink
Not only electrolytic capacitors are more explosive at high temperatures, power transistors can also break away under stress break the original. For example 2SC5200 transistors have the break voltage of 230Vdc, but if temperaturya high voltage values ​​will break his fall well below this value, resulting in faster transistor is damaged. Use of heatsink and cooling fan is very important not only to reduce the heat, more than it can prevent the transistor from break / damaged and weakened output. Increasingly hot temperatures will be more or less ability. Use of this cooling is expected for the components remain fresh, fit and durability.


Choice Component
Power Transistor
There are so many types and models of these transistors, for example MJ15003 MJ15024-4 and-5 from Motorola, but unfortunately these components are not manufactured by Motorola again but from ON semiconductor. Transistor model jengkol usually stronger in the high temperature, probably due to more airtight. 2SC5200 from Toshiba, this transistor is equal dalamannya Sanken 2SC2922 Korea, and both will break if the temperature is too hot. 2SC2922 Sanken issued tin granules when heated, this weakness, the Japanese technology is better than Korean technology. 2SC3281, this transistor is the most popular and frequently used in professional amplifier, but Toshiba does not produce much, if still there in the market, then it most likely is fake!

Transfomer
There are two models of the transformer which is often used, namely EI model (box / conventional) and the model toroid (ring / donut). Some say the toroid transformer model is better because it has a smaller flux leak, in fact the same. Circuits that are sensitive to this flux is high berpenguatan circuits like pre-amp head and mic pre-amp. The circuit is usually installed horizontally / flat parallel to the structure of a conventional transformer wire so that a series of emails received reverberation is greater. Unlike the model toroid transformer is arranged in a vertical wire their email so that the wires are perpendicular to circuit kits The effect is the flux of the pre-amp kit receive a smaller head. To solve for this flux does not enter the series is by downloading shelding / fortified with non-magnetic plate such as aluminum plate and copper plate / sheet pcb board. Plate is of course connected to ground via a cable. To match the flux in a vertical transmission, the conventional transformer needs to be installed side (the side be side down) so that the arrangement of transformer wire stand upright, this method is often used in built-up POWER2. Voltage 50V 50V CT can be obtained by combining the two transformer 25VCT25V, CT is not used, the foot 25V 50V so that the legs be made only to CT, bringing the total number is 100V or 50VCT50V. It deserves used for pwr amp powerless over 400Watt.

Resistor 5 Watt
Resistor on the power transistor legs are usually valued at 0.5 ohm 5 Watt white square. If we dismantle dalamannya it appears there was a circular aluminum wire. It resembles the inductor, the inductive reactance inductor will be higher when fed a high-frequency fractions so that treble tone will be weakened and deformed. Power required to remove the high notes (treble) of course greater, there is a problem here. The use of R 0.5/5W on its home-based power amplifier ok-ok only. But often do not realize the cause of damage to the speakers and power amplifiers is the high treble tones. Treble is not out but was hit by a pwr amp so arising is hot and damaged. We recommend using common Watt resistor 2 12:47 - 1 ohm parallel 2 so that counted 4 Watt. Or if you use 0:22 ohm 2 Watt Resitor unnecessary because the voltage clamp diparalel quite half (one R 0.5/5W replaced one R 0.22/2W) its ok.

Fuse
Nature damage to semiconductor materials / transistor power amplifier is short, if you use a supply that is high enough then the destruction of these transistors will invite their partners to be damaged as well. In order for the destruction of this transitor congregation not need the installation of fuses. 1.5A per power transistor is considered sufficient.